The Meiji Restoration was a time of great change in Japan. In the Japanese language, Meiji-ishin is the term for the Meiji Restoration. The term describes a number of events that took place in the politics and society of Japan that changed the shape of Japan’s political and social systems. These changes took place mainly during three years - from 1866 to 1869.
At that time (1866), the Tokugawa Shogunate was ruling Japan. In the year 1866, two leaders came together under an alliance. The name of this alliance was the Sat-cho Alliance. The name of the first leader was Saigo Takamori. He was the leader of the Satsuma Province. The second leader was Kido Takayoshi who was the leader of the Choshu and a person named Sakamoto Ryoma brought the two leaders together. These two leaders supported the Emperor of Japan who, at the time, did not have much power. With their support the emperor could regain much of his power.
The Tokugawa Shogunate’s rule ended on 9th November 1867, but they still retained some authority and power. In the Boshin War of 1868, an army from Satsuma Province and Choshu defeated the forces of the Tokugawa Shogunate. This completely ended the power of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
The leaders of the Meiji Restoration acted in the name of Japan’s emperor, to restore (that is, to return) the emperor’s powers. But, the leaders also kept to themselves a number of powers. In fact, even after the Meiji Restoration, an oligarchy, a small group, had the real power and ruled in the name of the emperor.
After the Meiji Restoration, Japan’s progress was fast. Industrialization developed rapidly and within next three to four decades (by 1905) Japan had become a military power, comparable to others of the time.
- Okubo Toshimichi (1830-1878)
- Kido Takayoshi (1833-1877)
- Saigo Takamori (1827-1877)
- Iwakura Tomomi (1825-1883)
- Ito Hirobumi (1841-1909)
- Kuroda Kiyotaka (1840-1900)
- Matsukata Masayoshi (1835-1924)
- Oyama Iwao (1842-1916)
- Saigo Tsugumichi (1843-1902)
- Yamagata Aritomo (1838-1922)
- Inoue Kaoru (1835-1915)
- Saionji Kinmochi (1849-1940)