Mongol invasions of Japan

attempts by the Mongol Empire to conquer Japan

Mongol invasions of Japan (元寇, Genkō) in 1274 and in 1281 were major military events in Japanese history.[1] Kublai Khan twice tried to conquer the Japanese islands; and his armies failed both times.

The Mongol fleet destroyed in a typhoon, ink and water on paper, by Kikuchi Yōsai, 1847

The two failed invasion attempts are important because they were defining events in Japanese history.[2]

The attempts show the limits of Mongol (Yuan Dynasty) ability to expand the Chinese empire.[3]

Timeline change

  • November 19, 1274 (Bun'ei 11, 20th day of the 10th month): Kublai Khan sent a fleet and an army to invade Japan. Some military forces landed near Fukuoka in Kyūshū; however, a storm sank many of the ships. The major part of the invading army is drowned. The invaders retreat to Korea.[4] During the brief fighting, the Hakozaki Shrine was burned to the ground.[5] This is called the Battle of Bun'ei (文永の役, Bun'ei no eki) or the "Bun'ei War".[6]
  • 1281 (Kōan 4): There was a second Mongolian attempt to invade Japan. This is called the Battle of Kōan (弘安の役, Kōan no eki) or the "Kōan War".[7]

Consequences change

After the destruction of the Mongol invaders, Japan's independence was guaranteed. A power struggle within Japan led to the growth of military governments and less Imperial power.[8]

Related pages change

References change

  1. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Genkō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 238.
  2. Web Chronology Project, "Early Japan: 552-1281"; retrieved 2012-4-29.
  3. Cultural China (Shanghai News and Press Bureau), "Mongol invasions of Japan - Major Military Invasions Undertaken by Kublai Khan" Archived 2012-04-13 at the Wayback Machine; retrieved 2012-4-29.
  4. Davis, Paul K. (2001). 100 decisive battles: from ancient times to the present, p. 147.
  5. Turnbull, Stephen R. (2003). Genghis Khan & the Mongol Conquests 1190–1400, p. 66.[permanent dead link]
  6. Nussbaum, "Bun'ei no eki" at p. 90.
  7. Nussbaum, "Kōan no Eki" at p. 535.
  8. Davis, p. 146.

Other websites change