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Kamakura shogunate

feudal military government of Japan
Minamoto no Yoritomo's goes to Kyoto at beginning of the Kamakura Shogunate -- woodblock print by Utagawa Sadahide, circa 1860s

The Kamakura shogunate (Japanese: 鎌倉幕, Kamakura bakufu) was a feudal Japanese feudal military government.[1] The heads of government were the shoguns.[2] The first three were members of the Minamoto clan.[3] The next two were members of the Fujiwara clan.[4] The last six were minor Imperial princes.[1]

These years are known as the Kamakura period. The period takes its name from the city where the Minamoto shoguns lived.[1]

After 1203, the Hōjō clan held the office of Shikken.[5] In effect, the shikken governed in the name of the shoguns.[6]

HistoryEdit

In 1192, Minamoto no Yoritomo and the Minamoto clan established a military government in Kamakura.[1] The shogunate functioned within the framework of the Heian system of Imperial rule.[7]

The Mongols under Kublai Khan attempted to invade Japan.[8] On 19 November 1274 (Bun'ei 11, 20th day of the 10th month), Kublai Khan's army landed near Fukuoka in Kyūshū. The invaders retreated to Korea.[9] This was called Bun'ei War (Bunei no eki).[10] There was a second invasion attempt by Mongol forces in 1281 (Kōan 4). This was called the Kōan War (Kōan no eki).[11] The shogunate prepared to defend against a third invasion, but it did not come. The costs of defense a weakened the shogunate.[12]

In the Siege of Kamakura (鎌倉の戦い) in 1333 (Genkō 3), forces led by Nitta Yoshisada destroyed the Kamakura shogunate [13]

List of Kamakura shogunsEdit

 
Grave of Minamoto no Yoritomo
  1. Minamoto no Yoritomo, r. 1192-1199[14]
  2. Minamoto no Yoriie, r. 1202-1203[15]
  3. Minamoto no Sanetomo, r. 1203-1219[16]
  4. Kujō Yoritsune, r. 1226-1244[17]
  5. Kujō Yoritsugu, r. 1244-1252[18]
  6. Prince Munetaka, r. 1252-1266[19]
  7. Prince Koreyasu, r. 1266-1289[20]
  8. Prince Hisaakira, r. 1289-1308[21]
  9. Prince Morikuni, r. 1308-1333[22]
  10. Prince Morinaga, r.1333-1334[23]
  11. Prince Norinaga, r. 1334-1338

List of Kamakura shikkenEdit

 
Site of Hōjō Takatoki's death
  1. Hōjō Tokimasa, r. 1203-1205[24]
  2. Hōjō Yoshitoki, r. 1205-1224[25]
  3. Hōjō Yasutoki, r. 1224-1242[26]
  4. Hōjō Tsunetoki, r. 1242-1246[27]
  5. Hōjō Tokiyori, r. 1246-1256[28]
  6. Hōjō Tokimune, r. 1268-1284[29]
  7. Hōjō Sadatoki, r. 1284-1301[30]
  8. Hōjō Morotoki, r. 1301-1311[31]
  9. Hōjō Takatoki, r. 1316-1326[32]

Related pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

 
The flower and bamboo symbol of the Minamoto family.
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 459. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  2. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. pp. 878–879. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  3. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. pp. 632–633. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  4. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. pp. 200–201. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  5. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. pp. 339–340. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  6. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 857. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  7. Jansen, Marius (1995). Warrior Rule in Japan. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-521-48404-6.
  8. Turnbull, Stephen R. (1987). Samurai Warriors, p. 38; Turnbull, (1966). Samurai Warfare, p. 98-99
  9. Davis, Paul K. (2001). 100 Decisive Battles: From Ancient Times to the Present. Oxford University Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-19-514366-9.
  10. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  11. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 535. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  12. Murdoch, James. (1964). A History of Japan, Vol. I, p. 511-513, 525.
  13. McCullough, Helen Craig. (1959). The Taiheiki: A Chronicle of Medieval Japan, pp. 285-311.
  14. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 635. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  15. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 635. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  16. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. pp. 633–634. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  17. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  18. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  19. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 666. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  20. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 561. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  21. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 321. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  22. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 660. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  23. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 660. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  24. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 340. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  25. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 341. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  26. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 341. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  27. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 341. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  28. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 341. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  29. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 341. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  30. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 340. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  31. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 340. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  32. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 340. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.

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