Open main menu

Neuron

electrically excitable cell
Diagram of neuron

A neuron (also called neurone or nerve cell) is a cell that carries electrical impulses.[1] Neurons are the basic ( functional & structural ) units of our nervous system.

Every neuron is made of a cell body (also called soma or cyton), dendrites and an axon.[1] Dendrites and axons are nerve fibers. There are about 86 billion neurons in the human brain, which comprises roughly 10% of all brain cells. Human brain has roughly 16 billion neurons in the cerebral cortex. The neurons are supported by glial cells and astrocytes.

Neurons are connected to one another and tissues. They do not touch each other, instead they form tiny gaps called synapses. These gaps can be chemical synapses or electrical synapses and pass the signal from one neuron to the next.

Contents

Types of neuronsEdit

By connectionEdit

There are three classes of neurons: afferent neurons, efferent neurons, and interneurons.

By functionEdit

  • Sensory neurons carry signals from sense organs to the spinal cord and brain.
  • Relay neurons carry messages between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous system
  • Motor neurons carry signals from the CNS to muscles, motor neurons are connected to the relay neurons. The signal passes between the neurons via synapses. Synapses are microscopic voids between cells where chemicals are released from the axon terminal of one cell to specialized chemical receptors on the dendrite of the receiving cell.

Cell divisionEdit

Mature neurons never divide: that is the general rule. They do not undergo cell division. In most cases, neurons are generated by special types of stem cells. A type of glial cell, called astrocytes, have also been seen to turn into neurons. In humans, neurogenesis (the origin of new nerve cells) largely ceases during adulthood – but in two brain areas, the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb, there is strong evidence for substantial numbers of new neurons.[2][3]

The largest part of the human brain by far is the neocortex. It has at least~1010 neurons[4] which stay with us from cradle to grave.[3]

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Fullick, Ann. Edexcel ICSE Biology Revisions Guide1. p. 40. ISBN 9780435046767.
  2. Wade, Nicholas (1999-10-15). "Brain may grown new cells daily". The New York Times.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Nowakowski, R.S. (2006). "Stable neuron numbers from cradle to grave". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (33): 12219. doi:10.1073/pnas.0605605103. 
  4. Blinkov S.M. & Glezer I.I. 1968. The human brain in figures and tables: a quantitative handbook. New York, Plenum.

Other websitesEdit