Non-coding DNA

DNA not coding for protein. Often translated to RNA and critical in regulating other genes

Non-coding DNA sequences are those parts of an organism's DNA that do not code for protein sequences.

Utricularia gibba has 3% noncoding DNA,[1] which is low for flowering plants.

Some non-coding DNA is transcribed into functional non-coding RNA molecules (e.g. transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, and regulatory RNAs), while others are not transcribed or give rise to RNA transcripts of unknown function. The amount of non-coding DNA varies greatly among species. For example, over 98% of the human genome is noncoding DNA,[2] while only about 2% of a typical bacterial genome is non-coding DNA.

Initially, a large proportion of non-coding DNA had no known biological function. It was known as "junk DNA", particularly in the press. However, it has been known for years that many non-coding sequences are functional. These include genes for functional RNA molecules and DNA sequences such as "start replication" signals, centromeres, and telomeres.

Other noncoding sequences have likely, but not yet discovered, functions. This is inferred from the high levels of sequence similarity seen in different species of DNA.

The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project[3] suggested in September 2012 that over 80% of DNA in the human genome "serves some purpose, biochemically speaking".[4] This conclusion was strongly criticized by some other scientists.[5][6]


  1. "Worlds record breaking plant: deletes its noncoding "Junk" DNA". Design & Trend. 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-04. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. Elgar G. & Vavouri T. 2008. Tuning in to the signals: non-coding sequence conservation in vertebrate genomes. Trends Genet. 24 (7): 344–52. [1]
  3. The ENCODE Project Consortium (2012). "An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome". Nature. 489 (7414): 57–74. Bibcode:2012Natur.489...57T. doi:10.1038/nature11247. PMC 3439153. PMID 22955616.
  4. Pennisi, E. (2012). "Genomics. ENCODE project writes eulogy for junk DNA". Science. 337 (6099): 1159, 1161. doi:10.1126/science.337.6099.1159. PMID 22955811.
  5. Robin McKie (24 February 2013). "Scientists attacked over claim that 'junk DNA' is vital to life". The Observer.
  6. Graur, Dan; et al. (2013). "On the immortality of television sets: "function" in the human genome according to the evolution-free gospel of ENCODE". Genome Biology and Evolution. doi:10.1093/gbe/evt028. PMC 3622293. PMID 23431001.