ancient city and archaeological site

Numantia (Spanish: Numancia) was an ancient Celtiberian settlement. Its remains are located 7 km north of the city of Soria, on a hill known as Cerro de la Muela in the municipality of Garray.[1]

Modern reconstruction of the walls of Numantia
Numantia is located in Spain
Location of the site in Spain
LocationProvince of Soria, Castile and León, Spain
Coordinates41°48′34.51″N 2°26′39.33″W / 41.8095861°N 2.4442583°W / 41.8095861; -2.4442583

Numantia is famous for its role in the Celtiberian Wars. It was a city that became famous for its resistance against the Roman armies.





The first human settlements in Numantia were established in the III millennium BC. Shepherds who made seasonal movements with their flocks inhabited this area. The area had a harsh climate but the pastures were rich.

Towards the 8th century BC., handmade ceramics were used in this settlement. From the 7th century BC., the settlement became a castro. Around 350 BC., Numantia had many inhabitants and was born as a city.

Roman authors don't agree on the people that lived there. Pliny the Elder believed it was the Pellendones.[2] However, other authors, like Strabo and Ptolemy say in their writings that the city belongs to the Arevaci people.

Roman conquest


In 153 BC, Numantia had its first serious conflict with Rome.

After 20 years of fighting, in 133 BC, the Roman Senate gave Scipio Aemilianus Africanus the task of destroying Numantia.

After 13 months of siege, the Numantians decided to burn the city before surrendering. The few survivors were sold as slaves.

Numantia was rebuilt in the time of Augustus. It was repopulated with Celtiberians.

Modern times


Today, Numancia is an archaeological site in the province of Soria.

It was declared a Bien de Interés Cultural (Site of Cultural Interest) on the 29th August 1882.

This site is being excavated by a group of archaeologists from the Complutense University of Madrid under the direction of Alfredo Jimeno.[3] It receives funds from the Junta de Castile and León.

Since 2007 there is a controversy as the Junta of Castile and León allowed the construction of industrial estate near the ruins. Several institutions have protested against that plan despite the statement from official authorities saying that the remains won't be damaged.


  1. Keay, S., R. Mathisen, H. Sivan. "Places: 246523 (Numantia)". Pleiades. Retrieved April 30, 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. Pliny. Natural History.
  3. Alfredo Jimeno Martínez at Academia

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