Eastern Iranian language of Afghanistan and Pakistan
Pashto (Pushto or Pakhto) is the official language of Afghanistan. It is spoken by the Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and Pakistan. It is the provincial language in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
|Pronunciation||] [paʂˈto], [paçˈto], [puxˈto]|
|Native to||Afghanistan, Pakistan|
|40–60 million (2007–2009)|
|Arabic (Pashto alphabet)|
Official language in
|Regulated by||Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan |
Pashto Academy (Pakistan)
pst – Central Pashto
pbu – Northern Pashto
pbt – Southern Pashto
wne – Waneci
Pashto belongs to the Indo-European languages family. It has two main dialects, western dialect and eastern dialect. The small difference between these two dialects is in the use of sounds.
- ↑ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007 (39 million)
- ↑ Penzl, Herbert; Ismail Sloan (2009). A Grammar of Pashto a Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan. Ishi Press International. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-923891-72-5. Retrieved 2010-10-25.
Estimates of the number of Pashto speakers range from 40 million to 60 million...
- ↑ "AFGHANISTAN vi. Paṧto". G. Morgenstierne. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
Paṧtō undoubtedly belongs to the Northeastern Iranic branch.
- ↑ Constitution of Afghanistan - Chapter 1 The State, Article 16 (Languages) and Article 20 (Anthem)
- ↑ "Population by Mother Tongue". Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 12 September 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
- ↑ Sebeok, Thomas Albert (1976). Current Trends in Linguistics: Index. Walter de Gruyter. p. 705.
- ↑ "Article Sixteen of the Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Archived from the original on October 28, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
From among the languages of Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmani, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri (alsana), Arab and other languages spoken in the country, Pashto and Dari are the official languages of the state.
- Morgenstierne, Georg. "The Place of Pashto among the Iranic Languages and the Problem of the Constitution of Pashtun Linguistic and Ethnic Unity." Paṣto Quarterly 1.4 (1978): 43-55.
- Cheung, Johnny. "Pashto Problems III Ancient Loanwords from Early New Persian and Indo-Aryan and the Historical Contacts of Pashto & its Speakers."