Potential energy

potential energy of a body

A potential energy is the energy that an object has because of its position on a gradient of potential energy called a potential field.[1][2]

  • An actual, or kinetic, energy (E = hf) is a nonzero‑frequency angular momentum.[3] It is the amount of work a moving body is capable of doing at any instant.[4] The actual energy is always positive,[5] and, because of that, has a positive inertia, which increases with speed, so that the maximum speed of propagation is the speed of light.
  • A potential energy is the zero‑frequency angular momentum stored in a potential flux of the vacuum.[6][7] The potential energy is always negative.[8] It is not a mere convention but a consequence of conservation of energy in the zero-energy universe—as an object descends into a potential field, its potential energy becomes more negative, while its actual energy becomes more positive. Since the potential energy is negative, it has a negative inertia, which decreases (i.e., becomes more negative) with speed, so that the potential energy self-accelerates to an infinite speed[9][10][11] and manifests itself as a suction[12] exerted from the future.[13]

The potential fields are irrotationally radial ("electric") fluxes of the vacuum[6][7] and divide into two classes:

  • The gravitoelectric fields.[14]
  • The electric fields.[15]

Accordingly, the potential energy of the universe divides into two classes:

  • The gravitoelectric potential energy, also known as space or volume which however is equivalent to rest mass.[16][17] Negative gravitoelectric potential energy exists as flux tubes of negative space and negative rest mass known as wormholes.[18]
  • The electric potential energy, also known as electric charge (a positive charge is a region of high electric potential energy, while a negative charge is a region of low electric potential energy).

In accordance with the minimum total potential energy principle, the universe's matter flows towards the minimum (i.e., the most negative) total potential energy. This cosmic flow is time, whereas the gradient of the universe's potential energy, down which the flow of time is being sucked,[12] is eternity or fate.[10][11]

The negative potential energies of homogeneously situated particles cancel each other, so that the total potential energy is zero. Conversely, the negative potential energies of hierarchically (dendritically) situated particles amplify each other, so that the total potential energy is more negative than the mere sum of the negative potential energies of the particles (see Binding energy). Thus, any negative-potential-energy hierarchy is holistic/synergetic, or, which is the same, animate, which implies that the universe's negative potential energy is the universe's spirit.[19] In accordance with the minimum total potential energy principle, the universe becomes ever more hierarchically animate.

Simple examplesEdit

Bringing a rock uphill consumes (negates) actual energy but increases (i.e., makes less negative) its gravitoelectric potential energy.

Increasing the distance between two elementary electric charges of different signs (an electron and a proton) consumes (negates) external actual energy but increases (i.e., makes less negative) the electric potential energy of their mutual attraction.

Stretching a rubber band increases its elastic potential energy, which is a form of the electric potential energy. A mixture of a fuel and an oxidant has a chemical potential energy, which is another form of the electric potential energy. Batteries too have chemical potential energy.

Gravitational potential energyEdit

 
Hyrdroelectric power plants use the gravitational potential energy of water (in the form of a difference in height) to produce electricity.

Gravitational potential energy is experienced by an object when height and mass is a factor in the system. Gravitational potential energy causes objects to move towards each other. If an object is lifted a certain distance from the surface from the Earth, the force experienced is caused by weight and height. Work is defined as force over a distance, and work is another word for energy. This means Gl Potential Energy is equal to:

 
where
  is the force of gravity
  is the change in height

or

 

Total work done by Gravitational Potential Energy in a moving object from position 1 to position 2 can be found by:

 

or

 
where
  is the mass of the object
  is the acceleration caused by gravity (constant)
  is the first position
  is the second position

Electric potential energyEdit

Electric potential energy is experienced by charges both different and alike, as they repel or attract each other. Charges can either be positive (+) or negative (-), where opposite charges attract and similar charges repel. If two charges were placed a certain distance away from each other, the potential energy stored between the charges can be calculated by:

 
where
  is 1/4πє (for air or vacuum it is  )
  is the first charge
  is the second charge
  is the distance apart

Elastic potential energyEdit

Elastic potential energy is experienced when a rubbery material is pulled away or pushed together. The amount of potential energy the material has depends on the distance pulled or pushed. The longer the distance pushed, the greater the elastic potential energy the material has. If a material is pulled or pushed, the potential energy can be calculated by:

 
where
  is the spring force constant (how well the material stretches or compresses)
  is the distance the material moved from its original position

Related pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Morrison, Faith A. An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics CUP, 2013, p. 442. "Energy may be stored in the state of a system—for example, as kinetic energy stored in the speed of the system, as potential energy stored in the position of the system in a potential field, or as internal energy stored in the chemical state of a system."
  2. Best, Myron G. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology John Wiley & Sons, 2013, p. 21. "Potential energy can be equated with the amount of work required to move a body from one position to another in a potential field, in this instance, the gravitational field of the Earth."
  3. Biedenharn, L. C.; Louck, J. D. Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., Advanced Book Program, 1981, p. 1. "The Planck quantum of action, h, has precisely the dimensions of an angular momentum, and, moreover, the Bohr quantization hypothesis specified the unit of (orbital) angular momentum to be ħ = h/2π. Angular momentum theory and quantum physics are thus clearly linked."
  4. Skertchly, J. Alfred. Natural Philosophy. Part I. Mechanics Thomas Murby, 1873, p. 145. "Kinetic, or Actual, Energy is the amount of work a moving body is capable of doing at any instant."
  5. Semat, Henry; Baumel, C. Philip. Fundamentals of Physics Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974, p. 83. "It must be emphasized that energy is a scalar; even though kinetic energy is a consequence of motion it has no direction and is a scalar quantity. Since the square of the speed is always positive and the mass of an object is always positive, the kinetic energy is always positive."
  6. 6.0 6.1 Ziegler, Franz. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids Springer, 1995, p. 167. "Force in such a potential field is a flux in the sense of a mechanical driving agent."
  7. 7.0 7.1 Volovik, G. E. The Universe in a Helium Droplet OUP, 2003, p. 60. "The non-viscous flow of the vacuum should be potential (irrotational)."
  8. Why is the Potential Energy Negative? HyperPhysics
  9. Hadronic Journal Supplement Vol. 14, Hadronic Press, 1999, p. 359. "Unfortunately a negative mass, with negative total energy, has a negative inertia so that it accelerates itself and the kinetic energy would tend to minus infinity."
  10. 10.0 10.1 TeGrotenhuis, Ward Evan. Brownian Dynamics of Colloidal Suspensions Vol. 1, University of California, Berkeley, 1990, p. 80. "The potential energy is the sum of direct interactions between the particles; this depends on the instantaneous configuration."
  11. 11.0 11.1 Larson, Dewey B. Beyond Newton: An Explanation of Gravitation. North Pacific Publishers, 1964. "Gravitational energy, or potential energy, is purely an energy of position; that is, for any two specific masses, the mutual gravitational potential energy is determined solely by their spatial separation. But energy of position in space cannot be propagated in space; the concept of transmitting this energy from one spatial location to another is totally incompatible with the fact that the magnitude of the energy is determined by the spatial location. Propagation of gravitation is therefore inherently impossible. The gravitational action is necessarily instantaneous as Newton's law indicates, and as has always been assumed for purposes of calculation."
  12. 12.0 12.1 Sachs, Paul D. Dynamics of a Natural Soil System Edaphic Press, 1999, p. 56. "The negative energy force that moves water is called suction."
  13. Skinner, Ray. Relativity for Scientists and Engineers Courier Corporation, 2014, pp. 188–89. "Finally, let us consider the use of a space-like energy-momentum transfer mechanism for sending signals that travel faster than light. By a signal, we mean a statement, possibly in some code, whose sense is not predetermined before the instant at which it is sent. A beam of negative energy that travels into the past can be generated by the acceleration of the source to high speeds. A beam of this sort could be used to send a signal into the past; if such signals were possible, we could determine the sense of the signal long before we decide upon the signal. This contradiction shows that we cannot use a negative-energy energy-momentum transfer mechanism to send signals. This does not mean that such energy-momentum transfers cannot occur; it means only that we cannot control those energy-momentum transfers to the extent that we can use them for signaling."
  14. Grøn, Øyvind; Hervik, Sigbjørn. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity with Modern Applications in Cosmology Springer, 2007, pp. 201, 203. "φ is the Newtonian or 'gravitoelectric' potential: φ = −Gm/r. ... In the Newtonian theory there will not be any gravitomagnetic effects; the Newtonian potential is the same irrespective of whether or not the body is rotating. Hence the gravitomagnetic field is a purely relativistic effect. The gravitoelectric field is the Newtonian part of the gravitational field, while the gravitomagnetic field is the non-Newtonian part."
  15. Soviet Physics, Uspekhi Vol. 40, issues 1–6, American Institute of Physics, 1997, p. 39. "From Maxwell equations (6.20) it follows that the electric field is potential: E(r) = −gradφ(r)."
  16. Mathews, Albert Prescott. The Nature of Matter, Gravitation, and Light W. Wood and Company, 1927, p. 106. "The quantity factor of potential energy is space or volume which however is equivalent to mass."
  17. Heighway, Jack. Einstein, the Aether and Variable Rest Mass HeighwayPubs, 2011, p. 36. "Understanding why rest masses are reduced in a gravitational field only requires a simple insight: when an object is raised in a gravitational field, the gravitational potential energy increase is real, and exists as an increase, usually tiny, in the rest mass of the object."
  18. You can't get entangled without a wormhole: Physicist finds entanglement instantly gives rise to a wormhole ScienceDaily, 5 December 2013. "More fundamentally, the results suggest that gravity may, in fact, emerge from entanglement. What's more, the geometry, or bending, of the universe as described by classical gravity, may be a consequence of entanglement, such as that between pairs of particles strung together by tunneling wormholes."
  19. Reyna, Ruth. The Philosophy of Matter in the Atomic Era: A New Approach to the Philosophy of Science Asia Publishing House, 1962, p. 120. "As I see it, soul is as much a physical phenomenon as are any of the other of our scientific concepts; therefore, science should not be squeamish about dealing with the term. … Soul, then, is a scientific construct, the ‘binding energy’ that makes up and holds together the composite, thinking, reasoning animal called ‘man’. It is what religionist-paleontologist Pierre Teilhard means by ‘the unity that holds matter together’."