Richard Cromwell

English politician (1626–1712)

Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. Richard Cromwell's enemies called him Hickory Dick and Queen Dick.

Richard Cromwell
Richard Cromwell
Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
In office
3 September 1658 – 25 May 1659
(264 days)
Preceded byOliver Cromwell
Succeeded byCouncil of State
Personal details
Born(1626-10-04)4 October 1626
Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, England
Died12 July 1712(1712-07-12) (aged 85)
Cheshunt, Hertfordshire, England
Political partyRoundhead
Dorothy Maijor
(m. 1649; died 1675)
RelationsOliver Cromwell (father)
Elizabeth Bourchier (mother)
See list
  • Elizabeth Cromwell
    Edward Cromwell
    Anne Cromwell
    Mary Cromwell
    Oliver Cromwell
    Dorothy Cromwell
    Anna Cromwell Gibson
    Dorothy Cromwell Mortimer
Nickname(s)Tumbledown Dick
Queen Dick
Royal styles of
Richard Cromwell,
Lord Protector of the Commonwealth
Reference styleHis Highness
Spoken styleYour Highness
Alternative styleSir

Richard Cromwell was not suited to ruling the country. He followed his father as ruler only because he was Oliver's oldest living son, and people expected one of Oliver's sons to follow him. After a short time, he gave up power and he knew that many of the people wanted King Charles II to come back from Holland and rule the country. When it was agreed that Charles would return, Richard thought it would be best for him to leave Britain, and he went to live in France for a while. He changed his name to "John Clarke" and travelled around Europe, not returning home for twenty years. When he came back, he lived quietly outside London for the rest of his life.

Stories about Richard change

The nursery rhyme "Hickory Dickory Dock" is actually about Richard Cromwell.[1] One of Richard's nicknames was Hickory Dick. The mouse in the rhyme runs down when the clock strikes one and Cromwell only reigned for one year.

References change

  1. Jack, Albert (2008). Pop Goes the Weasel: The Secret Meanings of Nursery Rhymes. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780141909301.

Other websites change

Political offices
Preceded by
Oliver Cromwell
Lord Protectorate of England, Scotland and Ireland
September 3, 1658-May 25, 1659
Succeeded by
King Charles II
As King of England, Scotland, Ireland and France.
Preceded by
Oliver Cromwell
Chancellor of the University of Oxford
Succeeded by
Duke of Somerset