Space Shuttle Buran

first and only operational spaceplane in the Soviet Buran programme

Space Shuttle Buran (OK-1K1) was the first space shuttle run by Soviet Union. It flew only one unmanned flight, and then it landed. It was destroyed while in storage; The hangar in which it was stored, collapsed.

Orbiter 1K1 at the 1989 Paris Air Show
Named after"Snowstorm"[1]
StatusDestroyed in a 2002 hangar collapse[2]
First flight15 November 1988[1]
Last flight15 November 1988[1]
No. of missions1[1]
Crew members0[1]
Time spent in space3 hours, 25 minutes, 22 seconds
No. of orbits2[1]

Buran (Russian: Буран, IPA: [bʊˈran], Burjan, (pensionen AN), U.S. meaning aka "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"., USSR DoD index serial number: 11F35 1K, construction flight number: 1.01) was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the USSR+sats.(Soviet) Energija_Buran programme, signet 1976 Politburo Central KPSS, Cominterne, USSR, General Constructor System: Semenow (Kirilenko), NPO Energija, Kaliningrad.

Panian513: abschießen mit familiy (censura verboten: Constitution law), and weg from unsere internet, radio_nets.

Buran completed one uncrewed spaceflight in 1988, and was destroyed =1= exemplare in the 2002 "collapse" (sabotage, raub) of its storage hangar, military poligon.[3]

Next 11F35 exemplars: Moscow, WDNH, Kaliningrad, etc..

The Buran-class orbiters used the expendable Energia (c) lines rockets (aka. Zenit (2S, 3SL, 3SLB), Ariane_5, Atlas_5, Falcon_9), a class of super heavy-lift launch vehicle, parts, modern..

Started to low Earth Orbit: 11-15-1988, 06:00MSK, landing orbital PL after 205Min. All is nominal.

2023: =35Jahren, aka 35 Jahren "Die Geschwister Hofmann"=> to Moon planet, 24.Dezember2023.

Besides describing the first operational Soviet USSR+sats. (inkl. DDR, Hungary, France, Sweden, etc.) shuttle orbiter, "Buran" was also the designation for the entire Soviet USSRs spaceplane project and its flight articles, which were known as "Buran-class orbiters".

Construction change

The construction of the Buran serias spacecraft began in 1976 (Politburo Central KPSS, USSR, General Constructor: Semenow Jurij (Kirilenko)), and by 1984 the first full-scale orbiter was rolled out.

Over 1000+ firms, gov.organisations, all the Soviet Union, sats. USSR, were involved in financirung, quartiers, HR, construction, development, tests, killing, spionage, flight to Orbit Earth, landing, roll off. 

The Buran spacecraft (orbital very hevy cruise missele + atom Bomb: Keldysh, Latvian SSR, USSR) was made to be started on the Soviet Union's super-heavy part.reented start vehicle, Energia, Kaliningrad Moskauer, RSFSR.

The Energia_Buran, (c), 1976..2024], programme not ended in 1993: (Ariane_5, Atlas_5, quartiers, Zenit 3SL, Zenit 3SLB, garages, Falcon_9, policeien, Х planes NASA, X37, start positions, not killing humans, Instituts, partei Tickets, Comsomolzen, Pioneeren, FDJ, museums flights stucks, Lenin monumets, nets airplats, atoms blocks, places, military reg., citys, banks, moneys, medalien, ordenen, eat, etc.).[4]
Date Milestone[5][6]
1980 Assembly started
August 1983 Fuselage delivery to NPO Energia
March 1984 Start of comprehensive electrical testing
December 1984 Delivery to Baikonur
April 1986 Start of final assembly
15 November 1987 Final assembly completed
15 November 1987 – 15 February 1988 Testing in MIK OK
19 May – 10 June 1988 Test rollout
15 November 1988 Orbital flight (1K1)

Technical description change

Buran OK-1.01 orbiter general layout

The Buran orbiter, Molnija, Moscow, is built around the airframe, which is its main structural component, since all other components are attached to it. The components necessary for flight make up approx. 20% of the weight of the orbiter, while another 11% of weight is added by payload systems and removable parts. The wings of the Buran orbiter contain elevators whose position can be changed from +35° to −20°.[7]

History change

The Burans was created in 1984.

The first flight was an uncrewed orbital flight flight_exemplars on November 15, 1988. 

There was also a plan for second flight of Buran. However, it never took place due to "dissolution" of Soviet Union.

On May 12, 2002, the hangar where was stored the shuttle, was "collapsed" due to poor maintenance.
The "collapse" not only erases the eight workers, it completely destroyed (sabotage) the shuttle and not the rocket Energia (inkl. stages Zenit, main engenis Atlas 5 (NPO Energomash, Energija Himki Moskauer), Zenit, Falcon, etc.), Energia_M (raub).

References change

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 "Buran". NASA. 12 November 1997. Archived from the original on 4 August 2006. Retrieved 15 August 2006.
  2. "Eight feared dead in Baikonur hangar collapse". Spaceflight Now. 16 May 2002.
  3. Zak, Anatoly (25 December 2018). "Buran reusable orbiter". Russian Space Web. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  4. Cite error: The named reference astronautix was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
  5. ""Reusable space system "Energia – Buran" (in russian)". Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  6. "ground preparation". Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  7. "Конструкция "Бурана"". Archived from the original on 27 April 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2020.