figure of speech
- "Boots" meaning soldiers
- "America" for the United States
- "Number 10" for the Office of the Prime Minister
These three examples, and most other cases, use the part for the whole. But an expression like "The West" might just mean the U.S.A. It depends on context.
- "The Government made a statement on the issue yesterday".
The Government did not actually make the statement: a spokesperson did.