The most common disease caused by Treponema pallidum is syphilis, a serious sexually transmitted infection.
Syphilis is treated and cured by taking antibiotics. Usually, the first treatment used is penicillin. Antibiotic resistance has developed to a number of agents. Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, may be as effective as penicillin-based treatment.
Pennicilin is still effective, but "the potential of this spirochete to develop additional antibiotic resistance could seriously compromise syphilis treatment and control".
- David N. Gilbert; Robert C. Moellering; George M. Eliopoulos. The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy 2011 (41st ed.). Sperryville, VA: Antimicrobial Therapy. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-930808-65-2.CS1 maint: display-authors (link)
- Stamm L.V. 2010. Global challenge of antibiotic-resistant Treponema pallidum. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54 (2): 583–9. 
- Kent M.E. & Romanelli F. 2008. Reexamining syphilis: an update on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and management. Ann Pharmacother 42 (2): 226–36.