United States invasion of Panama

1989 conflict in Panama involving the United States and the Panamanian Defense Force

The United States Invasion of Panama, codenamed Operation Just Cause, was the invasion of Panama by the United States in December 1989 and January 1990. This operation was done during the administration of U.S. President George H. W. Bush, and ten years after the Torrijos–Carter Treaties. By this treaty, it was accepted that the United States should give up control of the Panama Canal to Panama by 1 January 2000.

U.S. Army soldiers prepare to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama City, in December 1989.

During the invasion, the Panamanian leader, general and dictator Manuel Noriega was removed from his position and the elected president Guillermo Endara took control of the office. The Panamanian Defense Force was dissolved.