Urinary incontinence

uncontrolled leakage of urine

Urinary incontinence is the uncontrolled leakage of urine. It is common and has a big effect a person's life.[1] It is an important problem in healthcare for older people.[2] Enuresis is incontinence in children. Nocturnal enuresis is bed wetting.[3] Urinary incontinence UI can can be a source of shame or stigmatization. It creates barriers to successful treatment and makes the problem worse.[4] People may be too embarrassed to seek medical help for urinary incontinence.

Urinary incontinence
Other namesInvoluntary urination
Anatomy of the lower urinary tract and genital system. The top diagram shows the female urinary system, and the bottom shows the male urinary system.
SpecialtyUrology, gynecology

Pelvic surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause are major risk factors for urinary incontinence.[5] Urinary incontinence can be a symptom of another condition. It is common. Some people might not even tell their doctor about it.[6] There are four main types of urinary incontinence:[7]

Treatments for urinary incontinence include pelvic floor muscle training, bladder training, surgery, and electrical stimulation.[9] Councelling therapy works better than medication for stress and urge incontinence.[10] The benefit of medications is small and long term safety is unclear.[9] Urinary incontinence is more common in older women.[11]

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References change

  1. Ackley B (2010). Nursing diagnosis handbook : an evidence-based guide to planning care (9th ed.). Maryland Heights, Mo: Mosby. ISBN 9780323071505.
  2. Venes D (2013). Taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis. ISBN 9780803629776.
  3. "Enuresis". medicaldictionaryweb.com.
  4. "My bladder and bowel own my life." A collaborative workshop addressing the need for continence research (PDF). Age UK. 2018.
  5. "Urinary incontinence fact sheet". Womenshealth.gov. July 16, 2012. Retrieved 2016-12-05.
  6. "Medicinewise News". NPS MedicineWise. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. Retrieved 2013-09-24.
  7. Ghosh AK (2008). Mayo Clinic internal medicine concise textbook. Rochester, MN: Mayo Clinic Scientific Press. p. 339. ISBN 9781420067514.
  8. Santoro GA, Murad-Regadas S, Causa L, Mellgren A (19 November 2013). Gaspari AL, Pierpaolo S (eds.). Pelvic Floor Disorders: Surgical Approach. Milan: Springer. p. 58. ISBN 978-88-470-5441-7. OCLC 863638540.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Shamliyan, T.; Wyman, J.; Kane, R. L. (April 2012). "Nonsurgical Treatments for Urinary Incontinence in Adult Women: Diagnosis and Comparative Effectiveness". Comparative Effectiveness Reviews. AHRQ Comparative Effectiveness Reviews. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). PMID 22624162.
  10. Balk EM, Rofeberg VN, Adam GP, Kimmel HJ, Trikalinos TA, Jeppson PC (April 2019). "Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Treatments for Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis of Clinical Outcomes". Annals of Internal Medicine. 170 (7): 465–479. doi:10.7326/M18-3227. PMID 30884526.
  11. "Urinary Incontinence in Older Adults". National Institute on Aging. Retrieved 18 March 2018.