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Frost ref: [1]

Merging article histories

For merging the history of Article1 and Article2:

  1. Determine to target article. This is the location both histories will be merged into. - the final article destination. For this instruction, we determine its article2 (Art1 was copy pasted to art2)
  2. Delete Article2. Edit summary: merging histories
  3. Move article1 to article2. Edit summary: merging histories
  4. undelete article2
  5. check the history for the most up to date version of Article2 and revert to that version (The article1 redirect page may be on top after the undelete, revert to the most up to date art2 version}

At this point Art1 and 2's histories should be on the same page (Article2's) and article1 should be a redirect. If that redirect is not needed, qd under the rules for redirects (or g6). Odds are that the redirect is valid and should be kept but you never know. --Creol(talk) 05:13, 29 March 2012 (UTC)

Vince Prudente rewrite

Vince Prudente (born November 18, 1937, Connellsville, Pennsylvania) is an American trombonist, pianist, arranger, composer, and music teacher. He has played with Duke Ellington, Lionel Hampton and Woody Herman.

In April 1972 Prudente joined the Duke Ellington band as a trombone player. He played on a several Ellington recordings including Duke Ellington's Third Sacred Concert - The Majesty Of God, recorded in Westminster Abbey in 1973.[2] He played on three songs on the Ellington Suites, recorded between 1959 and 1972, and released in 1987.[3] He also played on "Mendoza" from the album Up In Duke's Workshop, recorded in 1972 and released in 1992.[4] In 1973 he played on Duke Ellington in Sweden.[5]

He has also played trombone on Phyllis Hyman's 1998 album, One On One.[6] Prudente plays trombone with Jim Hobbs and The Fully Celebrated Orchestra's album, Lapis Exilis.[7]


In 2004 Prudente took part in the Ellington Reunion Project, when 18 former members of Ellington's orchestra got together to perform two concerts.[8]

At age 3 he heard Tommy Dorsey and was thrilled. In high school he was inspired by the trombones of Stan Kenton’s orchestra, and later J.J. Johnson. Starting on mellophone at 7, he moved to trombone at 11 and at 14 played his first professional job. He studied with Matty Shiner through high school and at Duquesne University, receiving a B.S. in Music Education in 1959. Later in ‘59 he joined Lionel Hampton and moved to New York, touring the world and recording with Hampton for 4 years, sandwiched around 2 years in the Army. In 1966 he played in New York with many big bands, including Kenny Dorham/Joe Henderson, Frank Foster, and Clark Terry. His apartment from 1966 to 1972 was a jazz workshop. Great musicians passed through, including Paul Chambers, George Coleman, Roy Brooks, Sonny Fortune, Larry Young, Virgil Jones and Walter Davis Jr. In 1968 he toured the US and Europe and recorded with Woody Herman for a year, then returned to a variety of musical work in New York for 3 years.

In April, 1972, Vince joined Duke Ellington, touring and recording with him until Duke’s death on May 24, 1974. He stayed with the orchestra, under the direction of Mercer Ellington, for 2 more years. He toured the US, Europe, and Africa with both Duke and Mercer. Sarah Vaughan, Ella Fitzgerald, Nancy Wilson, Tony Bennett, and Joe Williams performed with the band during Vince’s tenure. From 1977 to ‘79 he played with Melba Moore, and at the Cotton Club. In 1981 he rejoined the Ellington orchestra for the 2-year duration of the Broadway show “Sophisticated Ladies,” starring Gregory Hines. Through 1985 he free-lanced in New York with the orchestra, with Illinois Jacquet, and in a PBS tribute to Chano Pozo including Dizzy Gillespie at Town Hall. Vince wrote a number of arrangements for the Ellington orchestra, including “A Flower is a Lovesome Thing,” on the Grammy-nominated album “Music is My Mistress.”

In 1986 he moved to the West Coast, and taught jazz courses and trombone at CSU, Chico, while earning an M.A. with distinction. He worked with Joe Henderson’s big band, Bill Berry’s L.A. Band, Buddy Collette, and his own trio, playing both trombone and piano. Back to New York in 1992, he toured Europe with the Ellington orchestra. He worked with Larry Ridley’s sextet in 1994 and ‘95. From 1994 through 2007 he was an adjunct professor at NYU’s Gallatin School of Individualized Study, teaching jazz workshops. In 1999 Vince was honored at Jazz at Lincoln Center’s celebration of Duke Ellington’s 100th birthday, along with other “Ducal” alumni. In 2004 he was in a similar project at Claremont College. In June 2005 he received The Don Redman Heritage Award. In February and March of 2007 Vince and his quartet recorded his first CD under his own name, titled “The Treatment.” In the fall 0f 2007 he became a trombone instructor at Bard College while he continues to work with his trio and quartet.

Qadhafi's "Third Universal Theory"

In the early 1970s, Qadhafi began to synthesize and expand his ideas of Arab unity, independence, economic egalitarianism, and cultural authenticity into the Third Universal Theory. The importance of this new theory to the regime was shown by the creation of the Higher Council for National Guidance on September 10, 1972. The council comprised the RCC chairman; the ASU secretary general; the minister of education; the minister of information and culture; the minister of youth and social affairs; the minister of planning, the University of Libya's president; the administrative chairmen of religious endowments; the Muslim Call Society chairman, and the ASU secretary of thought and culture.

The Higher Council for National Guidance was created to disseminate and implement Qadhafi's Third Universal Theory (also seen as the Third International Theory or simply the Third Theory). The Third Universal Theory was predicated on the belief that the two dominant socio-politico-economic ideologies--capitalism and communism--had been proved invalid. According to the theory, capitalism placed the good of a few individuals ahead of that of the community as a whole; communism so emphasized the community that individual development was stifled. Nations constituting what is commonly referred to as the Third World were caught between proponents of the two ideologies: the United States and the Soviet Union, both of which, according to Qadhafi, were "imperialist states which seek to achieve their ambitions by extending their zones of influence."

Qadhafi proclaimed that the Third Universal Theory, because it was based on the Quran, predated capitalism and communism. Furthermore, it offered an alternative. It rejected the class exploitation of capitalism and the class warfare of communism, finding that, in practice at least, systems based on both ideologies were dominated by a small elite. According to the Third Universal Theory, classes were an artificial colonial import. Far from building a system that rested on some form of class relations, the theory sought to eliminate class differences. It embodied the Islamic principle of consultation (shura), by which community or even national affairs would be conducted through mutual consultation in which the views of all citizens were exchanged. This principle was manifested later in Libya in the creation of people's committees and popular congresses.

The Third Universal Theory was an attempt to establish a philosophical grounding, based on Islam, for positive neutrality on the part of Third World nations. Under the theory, Third World states could coexist with the United States and the Soviet Union, and they could enter into agreements with them for their own purposes. But Third World states in general and Arab states in particular should not fall under the dominance of either of the two ideological, imperialist superpowers. In dividing the world between the two superpowers and their supposed prey, the Third Universal Theory anticipated much of what has come to be called the North-South interpretation of international relations, whereby the world is divided into natural-resource-consuming nations (the industrialized North) and the natural-resource-producing nations (the underdeveloped South). Indeed, Qadhafi has championed this interpretation of international relations. Guided by this viewpoint, Libya has been a strong supporter of national liberation movements against colonial regimes, even though the terrorist tactics used by some groups have tarnished Libya's international reputation and led to economic sanctions and to military attacks in mid-1986.

Central to the Third Universal Theory are the concepts of religion and nationalism as embodied in Islam. Qadhafi believes that religion and nationalism have been the "two paramount drives that moved forward the evolutionary process. They constitute man's history as they have formed nations, peoples, wars." In short, Qadhafi believes that religion determines human actions and interactions.

The perceived atheism of the communists is another reason Qadhafi finds their ideology invalid. According to Qadhafi, communists cannot be trusted because they fear no ultimate judgment and thus may break their word if they consider it beneficial in any particular case.

According to Qadhafi, if religion is basic to the individual, nationalism is basic to the society. The Quran refers to tribes and nations that are inherent in the universe. A person belongs to a nationality upon birth. Only later does he or she become a conscious member of a religion. Thus, Qadhafi faults those who deny the validity of nationality. His concept of nationality, therefore, relates to his concept of Arab unity.

In this regard, Qadhafi adhered to the traditional, secularly based view of Arab nationalism propounded by such thinkers as Michel Aflaq, a founder and key political philosopher of the Baath Party, and Nasser. For Qadhafi, nationalism takes precedence over religion. In a wide-ranging speech before the GPC meeting in Sabha on March 2, 1987, Qadhafi denounced Islamic fundamentalism as "nonsense" and stated that "no banner should be hoisted over the Arab homeland except the banner of pan-Arabism."

Template experimenting

Fred Smith
5th Premier of
In office
15 June 2005 – 20 June 2005
Preceded byGeorge
Personal details
Political partyHappy Birthday Party
  1. Alan, Frost (2011). The First Fleet: the real story. Collingwood, Victoria: Black Inc. ISBN 9781863955294.
  2. "Duke Ellington - Duke Ellington's Third Sacred Concert - The Majesty Of God (Vinyl, LP) at Discogs". discogs.com. 2011 [last update]. Retrieved March 15, 2011. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  3. "Duke Ellington - The Ellington Suites (CD) at Discogs". discogs.com. 2011 [last update]. Retrieved March 15, 2011. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  4. "Duke Ellington & His Orchestra* - Up In Duke's Workshop (Vinyl, LP) at Discogs". discogs.com. 2011 [last update]. Retrieved March 15, 2011. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  5. "Album Information | ELLINGTON: Duke Ellington in Sweden 1973 | Naxos Music Library". naxosmusiclibrary.com. 2011 [last update]. Retrieved March 15, 2011. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  6. "Phyllis Hyman - One On One (CD) at Discogs". discogs.com. 2011 [last update]. Retrieved March 15, 2011. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  7. "Skycap Records". skycap.de. 2009 [last update]. Retrieved March 15, 2011. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  8. "Newsletter #12 - Powered by Google Docs". docs.google.com. 2011 [last update]. Retrieved March 15, 2011. Check date values in: |year= (help)