Wrasse

family of fishes

The wrasses are a family, the Labridae, of marine fish, many of which are brightly colored. The family is large and diverse, with over 600 species in 82 genera.[1]

Wrasses
Moon wrasse, Thalassoma lunare, a typical wrasse
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Labriformes
Family: Labridae
G. Cuvier, 1816
Photo of two small wrasses cleaning large wrasse's gills
Cleaner wrasse working on a dragon wrasse on a coral reef in Hawaii

They are usually small fish, mostly less than 20 centimetres (7.9 in) long, although the largest, the humphead wrasse, can measure up to 2.5 metres (8.2 ft).

Etymology

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The word "wrasse" comes via Cornish from the Welsh word gwrach meaning an old woman or hag.[2]

Taxonomy

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Subgroups and tribes

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  • Cheilines
  • Hypsigenyines
  • Julidines
  • Labrichthyines
  • Labrines
  • Novaculines
  • Pseudocheilines
  • Pseudolabrines
  • Scarines

Genera

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  • Acantholabrus
  • Achoerodus
  • Ammolabrus
  • Anampses
  • Anchichoerops
  • Austrolabrus
  • Bodianus
  • Centrolabrus
  • Cheilinus
  • Cheilio
  • Choerodon
  • Cirrhilabrus
  • Clepticus
  • Conniella
  • Coris
  • Ctenolabrus
  • Cymolutes
  • Decodon
  • Diproctacanthus
  • Doratonotus
  • Dotalabrus
  • Epibulus
  • Eupetrichthys
  • Frontilabrus
  • Gomphosus
  • Halichoeres
  • Hemigymnus
  • Hologymnosus
  • Iniistius
  • Labrichthys
  • Labroides
  • Labropsis
  • Labrus
  • Lachnolaimus
  • Lappanella
  • Larabicus
  • Leptojulis
  • Macropharyngodon
  • Malapterus
  • Minilabrus
  • Notolabrus
  • Novaculichthys
  • Novaculoides
  • Novaculops
  • Ophthalmolepis
  • Oxycheilinus
  • Oxyjulis
  • Paracheilinus
  • Parajulis
  • Pictilabrus
  • Polylepion
  • Pseudocheilinops
  • Pseudocheilinus
  • Pseudocoris
  • Pseudodax
  • Pseudojuloides
  • Pseudolabrus
  • Pteragogus
  • Sagittalarva
  • Semicossyphus
  • Stethojulis
  • Suezichthys
  • Symphodus
  • Tautoga
  • Tautogolabrus
  • Terelabrus
  • Thalassoma
  • Wetmorella
  • Xenojulis
  • Xiphocheilus
  • Xyrichtys

The cleaner wrasse

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Main article: Cleaner fish

Cleaner wrasses are the best-known of the cleaner fish.

Feeding methods

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They are carnivores, feeding on a wide range of small invertebrates. Many smaller wrasses follow the feeding trails of larger fish, eating invertebrates left by big fish.[3]

Wrasses can put their jaws forwards, usually with separate jaw teeth that jut outwards.[4]

Many species can be recognized by their thick lips. The inside of these lips is curiously folded, which gave rise the German name of Lippfische. The dorsal fin has 8–21 spines and 6–21 soft rays, usually running most of the length of the back.

Wrasse are sexually dimorphic. Many species are capable of changing sex. Juveniles are a mix of males and females (known as Initial Phase or IP individuals) but the largest adults become territory-holding (Terminal Phase or TP) males.[4]

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References

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  1. Cowman, Peter F.; Bellwood, David R.; Van Herwerden, Lynne (2009). "Dating the evolutionary origins of wrasse lineages (Labridae) and the rise of trophic novelty on coral reefs". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 52 (3): 621–631. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.05.015. PMID 19464378.
  2. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Wrasse
  3. Choat, J.H. & Bellwood, D.R. (1998). Paxton, J.R. & Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 211. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Wainwright; et al. (2005). "Many-to-one mapping of form to function: a general principle in organismal design?". Integrative & Comparative Biology. 45 (2): 256–262. doi:10.1093/icb/45.2.256. PMID 21676769.

Other websites

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