1923 Great Kantō earthquake

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The Great Kantō earthquake (関東大震災, Kantō daishinsai) was a Japanese natural disaster in the Kantō region of the island of Honshū.[11] The earthquake struck at 11:58:44 am JST (2:58:44 UTC) on Saturday, September 1, 1923. It lasted between 4 and 10 minutes.[12]

1923 Great Kantō earthquake
1923 Great Kantō earthquake is located in Japan
1923 Great Kantō earthquake
UTC time1923-09-01 02:58:35
ISC event911526
Local dateSeptember 1, 1923 (1923-09-01)
Local time11:58:32 JST (UTC+09:00)
Duration48 s[1] 4 min[2]
Magnitude7.9[3] 8.0[4] 8.2[5] Mw
Depth23 km (14 mi)
Epicenter35°19.6′N 139°8.3′E / 35.3267°N 139.1383°E / 35.3267; 139.1383[6]
Areas affectedJapan
Max. intensityXI (Extreme)
TsunamiUp to 12 m (39 ft)
in Atami, Shizuoka, Tōkai[7]
Aftershocks6 of 7.0 M or higher[8]
Casualties105,385[9]–142,800[10] deaths

This earthquake destroyed Tokyo, the port city of Yokohama, surrounding prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, and Shizuoka. It caused widespread damage.[13] About 140,000 people died.

  1. Kobayashi, Reiji; Koketsu, Kazuki (2005). "Source process of the 1923 Kanto earthquake inferred from historical geodetic, teleseismic, and strong motion data". Earth, Planets and Space. 57 (4): 261. Bibcode:2005EP&S...57..261K. doi:10.1186/BF03352562. S2CID 56376668.
  2. Panda, Rajaram. "Japan Coping with a National Calamity". Delhi: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA). Retrieved 21 December 2011.
  3. Kanamori, Hiroo (1977). "The energy release in great earthquakes" (PDF). J. Geophys. Res. 82 (20): 2981–2987. Bibcode:1977JGR....82.2981K. doi:10.1029/JB082i020p02981. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-15. Retrieved 2019-05-13.
  4. Namegaya, Yuichi; Satake, Kenji; Shishikura, Masanobu (2011). "Fault models of the 1703 Genroku and 1923 Taisho Kanto earthquakes inferred from coastal movements in the southern Kanto erea" (PDF). Retrieved 27 September 2015.
  5. "首都直下地震モデル検討会" (PDF). 首都直下のM7クラスの地震及び相模トラフ沿いのM8クラスの地震等の震源断層モデルと震度分布・津波高等に関する報告書
  6. Usami, Tatsuo『最新版 日本被害地震総覧』 p272.
  7. Hatori, Tokutaro. "Tsunami Behavior of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake at Atami and Hatsushima Island in Sagami Bay". Archived from the original on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
  8. Takemura, Masayuki (1994). "Aftershock Activities for Two Days after the 1923 Kanto Earthquake (M=7.9) Inferred from Seismograms at Gifu Observatory". Retrieved 27 September 2015.
  9. Takemura, Masayuki; Moroi, Takafumi (2004). "Mortality Estimation by Causes of Death Due to the 1923 Kanto Earthquake". Journal of Jaee. 4 (4): 21–45. doi:10.5610/jaee.4.4_21.
  10. "Today in Earthquake History". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  11. James, Charles. "The 1923 Tokyo Earthquake and Fire" at University of California, Berkeley Archived 2014-08-07 at the Wayback Machine; retrieved 2012-12-11.
  12. Panda, Rajaram. "Japan Coping with a National Calamity," Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA); retrieved 2012-12-11.
  13. Hammer, Joshua. (2006). Yokohama Burning: the Deadly 1923 Earthquake and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II, p. 278.

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