|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|Centuries:||7th century BC – 6th century BC – 5th century BC|
|Decades:||530s BC 520s BC 510s BC – 500s BC – 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC|
|Years:||509 BC 508 BC 507 BC 506 BC 505 BC 504 BC 503 BC 502 BC 501 BC 500 BC|
|Categories:||Births – Deaths – Architecture|
Establishments – Disestablishments
- 509 BC -the Roman Republic starts.
- 509 BC, September 13 - The temple of Jupiter on Rome's Capitoline Hill is dedicated on the ides (15th) of September.
- 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus made in Rome
- 507 BC - Cleisthenes, Greek reformer, takes power and increases democracy
- 506 BC - Battle of Bai ju: Forces of the Kingdom of Wu under Sun Tzu defeat the forces of Chu
- 505 BC - First pair of Roman consuls elected
- 502 BC - December 4: Solar eclipse darkens Egypt. (we think this because of scientific pattern, no clear historical record of observation)
- 502 BC - The Latin League defeats the Etruscans under Lars Porsenna at Aricia.
- 502 BC - Naxos rebels against Persian domination sparking the Ionian Revolt.
- 501 BC - Cleisthenes reforms democracy in Athens.
- 501 BC - Naxos is attacked by the Persian Empire.
- 501 BC - because of threats by the Sabines, Rome makes the office of dictator.
- 501 BC - Confucius is made governor of Chung-tu.
- 501 BC - Gadir (present-day Cádiz) is captured by Carthage. (approximate date)
- 500 BC - Bantu-speaking people come into south-west Uganda from the west. (approximate date)
- 500 BC - Refugees from Teos resettle Abdera.
- 500 BC - Darius I of Persia proclaims that Aramaic be the official language of the western half of his empire
- 500 BC - the end of the Nordic Bronze Age civilization in Oscar Montelius periodization system and the start of the Pre-Roman Iron Age
- 500 BC - the first republic in Vaishali Bihar India starts.
- c. 500 BC—Yayoi period starts in Ancient Japan.
- c. 500 BC—Oldest known Zapotec writing.
- The Gutaii tribe began around this time, in Middle and Southern Africa.