Ahir Kingdom

ancient Indian History

The Ahir (Abhira) Kingdom in the Mahabharata is one of two kingdoms near the Sarasvati River which existed only as a dried up river bed during the time of the Kurukshetra War. They were dominated by the Ahirs/Abhiras sometimes referred to as Sur-abhira also, combining both Sura and Abhira kingdoms. The modern day Ahir/Abhira territory lies within the Northern areas of Gujarat and Southern Rajasthan, India.[1]

Reference of Abhiras in Mahabharat change

Ahirs are mentioned as warriors in support of Duryodhana in the Mahabharat war.[2] The Gopas, whom Krishna had offered to Duryodhana to fight in his support when he himself joined Arjuna's side, were no other than the Yadavas themselves, who were also the Ahirs.[3][4] The Ahirs also have been described as Vratya Kshatriyas. The Ahirs are said to have looted the troops of Arjuna, the Pandava, when he was returning from Dwaraka being accompanied by some of the members of Sri Krishna's family after the death of the later. Abhiras are said to have waylaid Arjuna and deprived him of remaining wealth from Dwarka and women somewhere in Punjab.[5][6] In Mahabharat Ahir, Gopa, Gopal[7] and Yadavas are all synonyms.[8][9][10] They defeated the hero of Mahabharat war, and did spare him when he disclosed the identity of the members of the family of Sri Krishna.[11]

Ahir kingdom of Maharashtra change

The Ahirs ruled Western Maharashtra which included Nasik, Aparanta, Lata[12] and Khandesh.[13]

Ahir kingdom of South India change

According to historian Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya the Ahir Kingdom (Ay Dynasty) was far more extended in South India.[12]

King Porus change

Porus was an ancient Indian king whose territory spanned the region between the Hydaspes River of Jhelum and Acesines (Chenab River), in the Punjab region. He is credited to have been a legendary warrior with exceptional skills.Porus fought against Alexander the Great in the Battle of the Hydaspes (326 BC), thought to be fought at the site of modern-day Mong, Punjab, which is now part of Pakistan. Ancient Greek historians describe the battle and the aftermath of Alexander's victory. After the defeat and arrest of Porus in the war, Alexander asked Porus how he would like to be treated. Porus, although defeated, being a valiant, proud king, stated that he be treated like how Alexander himself would expect to be treated. Alexander was reportedly so impressed by his adversary that he not only reinstated him as a satrap of his own kingdom but also granted him dominion over lands to the south-east extending until the Hyphasis (Beas).Porus reportedly died sometime between 321 and 315 BC.

According to historian Ishwari Prasad, Porus might have been a Yaduvanshi Shurasena. He argued that Porus' vanguard soldiers carried a banner of Heracles whom Megasthenes—who travelled to India after Porus had been supplanted by Chandragupta—explicitly identified with the Shurasenas of Mathura. This Heracles of Megasthenes and Arrian (the so called Megasthenes' Herakles) has been identified by some scholars as Krishna and by others as his elder brother Baladeva, who were both the ancestors and patron deities of Shoorsainis Yaduvansh. Iswhari Prashad and others, following his lead, found further support of this conclusion in the fact that a section of Shurasenas were supposed to have migrated westwards to Punjab and modern Afghanistan from Mathura and Dvārakā, after Krishna walked to heaven and had established new kingdoms there.

Kalachuri Dynasty change

The Early Kalachuris or Kalachuris of Mahismati were generally classified as of Abhira lineage.[14] As the Kalachuri-Era was started by Abhira king Ishwardutta/Ishwarsena and the Early Kalachuris were also closely connected with the Abhira-Traikutakas, who claimed to be the Yadavas of Haihaya sect. The Later Kalachuris were regarded as namesakes and they had no connection with the Early Kalachuris.[12][15]

The following are the known rulers of the Kalachuri dynasty of Mahismati with their estimated reigns (IAST names in brackets):

• Krishnaraja (Kṛṣṇarāja), r. c. 550-575 CE

• Shankaragana (Śaṃkaragaṇa), r. c. 575-600 CE

• Buddharaja (Buddharāja), r. c. 600-625 CE

Traikutakas change

It is generally believed that Traikutakas were another class of Abhiras. And that is why they also have been called Abhira-Traikutaka in history. Indradutta, Dahrasena and Vyaghrasena are the chief kings of this dynasty. The Traikutakas are known for their Vaishnava sect, who claimed to be the Yadavas of the Haihaya lineage. And Dahrasena also performed Ashwamedh Yajna. The following were the principal rulers:

  • Maharaj Indradutta
  • Maharaj Dahrasena
  • Maharaj Vyaghrasena

Chudasama Dynasty change

The Chudasama Dynasty is originally considered to be of Abhira lineage of Sindh. Graharipu of this lineage has been called as Abhira and Yadava in the poetry of Hemachandracharya. According to Indian historian Vidarbha Singh, Chudasama people are the descendants of Samma-Yadavas of the Nagar Samachi of Sindh, who probably migrated from Sindh in the 9th century. Harald Tambs-Lyche believes that the popular story evidence based on the poetry that was Chudasama Dynasty in Junagadh that is in Saurashtra (Sorath) region of Gujarat. The Chudasama line of Abhiras was traditionally established in 875 CE. Chudasama rulers were also often addressed by titles like 'Ahir Rana or Abhira Ranaka' and by the idea of ​​Harald Tambs-Lyche "Chudasama state was composed of Ahir caste and many small princely (petty) states which were later classified into Rajputs." Dulmaka Chudasama, the last ruler of this lineage, accepted Islam religion under the influence of Muhhamed Baghara in 1470. Baghara had invaded Girnar of Chudasama Dynasty many times.[4]

Related pages change

References change

  1. India, Numismatic Society of (1991). The Journal of the Numismatic Society of India. Numismatic Society of India, P.O. Hindu University.
  2. Man in India – Google Books. 17 July 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  3. Man in India – Google Books. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ethnic history of Gujarat – Popatlal Govindlal Shah – Google Books. 13 February 2009. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  5. Social movements and social transformation: a study of two backward classes movements in India
  6. Ancient Nepal
  7. Ancient Nepal – D. R. Regmi, Nepal Institute of Asian Studies – Google Books. 1 December 1973. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  8. Encyclopaedia of ancient Indian ... – Subodh Kapoor – Google Books. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  9. Social movements and social ... – M. S. A. Rao – Google Books. 14 December 2006. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  10. Social movements and social ... – M. S. A. Rao – Google Books. 14 December 2006. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  11. Yadavas through the ages, from ... – J. N. Singh Yadav – Google Books. 28 August 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 By Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya (1974). "Some Early Dynasties of South India". History. Motilal. p. 129.
  13. Subodh Kapoor. "Encyclopaedia of Ancient Indian Geography, Volume 1". Geography. Cosmo Publications. p. 2.
  14. Gazetteer, Orrisa (24 June 1948). "Journal Of Orrisa Vol. 1". Google Books. Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  15. Choubey, M.C. (2000-10-01). "Trīpuri and the Early Kālāchuris". Google Books. Retrieved 2023-10-01.