|Ethnicity||15,000 Ainu people in Japan (no date)|
Particularly in the 19th century, Ainu was spoken in Ezo (including Hokkaidō Island and the southern part of Chishima Islands), the southern part of Karapto (Sakhalin) and the northern part of Chishima Islands (Kuril Islands).
Ainu has many dialects, including Chitose, Saru, and Karapto. Historically, the Ainu had no unified government and so there is no standard dialect. The dialects are so different from one another that a speaker of one dialect cannot understand a speaker of another dialect.
The word ainu means "human being" and is the name used by the Ainu to refer to themselves. In contrast, kamuy means "god". The Ainu think that all existence that has mind and plays a role in this world are kamuy. Sparrows or standing trees are kamuy. In the Ainu perspective of the world, all goes well and human being can also be happy if ainu and kamuy help each other.
Most linguists think that the Ainu numeral system is based on twenty.
|number||Ainu (in Saru dialect)||Nivkh||Japanese|
- Ape - fire.
- Iyomante - A festival to send a bear's soul to heaven.
- Kunnechupu - The moon.
- Kotan - village.
- Konru - ice.
- Sumari - (pronounced as in "Shumari") - fox.
- Seta - dog.
- Tonoto - sake.
- Nonno- flower.
- Huci - (pronounced as in "Hoochi") - grandmother, Old women.
- Pone - bone.
- Pirka - Beauty,cute, kawaii.
- wakka - "drinkable" water.
- Ainu language at Ethnologue (8th ed., 1974). Note: Data may come from an earlier edition.
- D. Bradley, "Languages of Mainland South-East Asia," in O. Miyaoka, O. Sakiyama, and M. E. Krauss (eds), The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim, Oxford: Oxford University Press (2007), pp. 301–336. .
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ainu (Japan)". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Nakagawa 2013, pp. 8-11.
- 公益社団法人北海道アイヌ協会 (ed.). "アイヌ民族の概説 (general information of ethnic Ainu)" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-09-22.
- Nakagawa 2013, pp. 26-27.
- Murasaki, Kyoko (2009-03-08). "Numerals in the Sakhalin Dialect of Ainu". Retrieved 2016-09-23.
- Nakagawa 2013, pp. 100-107.
- Stolz, Christel (2015-03-10). Christel Stolz (ed.). Language Empires in Comparative Perspective. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 167. ISBN 978-3-11-040836-2. Retrieved 2016-09-22.