|Ethnicity||15,000 Ainu people in Japan (no date)|
In the 19th century, Ainu was spoken in Ezo (including Hokkaidō Island and the southern part of Chishima Islands), the southern part of Karapto (Sakhalin) and the northern part of Chishima Islands (Kuril Islands). Now it is only spoken in Hokkaidō.
Ainu had many dialects, including Chitose, Saru, and Karapto. Now only the Hokkaidō dialect survives. The dialects were so different from one another that a speaker of one dialect could not understand a speaker of another dialect.
The word ainu means "human being" and is the name used by the Ainu to refer to themselves. In contrast, kamuy means "god". The Ainu think that all existence that has mind and plays a role in this world are kamuy. Sparrows or standing trees are kamuy. In the Ainu perspective of the world, all goes well and human being can also be happy if ainu and kamuy help each other.
Most linguists think that the Ainu numeral system is based on twenty.
|number||Ainu (in Saru dialect)||Nivkh||Japanese|
- Ape - fire.
- Iyomante - A festival to send a bear's soul to heaven.
- Kunnechupu - The moon.
- Kotan - village.
- Konru - ice.
- Sumari - (pronounced as in "Shumari") - fox.
- Seta - dog.
- Tonoto - sake.
- Nonno- flower.
- Huci - (pronounced as in "Hoochi") - grandmother, Old women.
- Pone - bone.
- Pirka - Beauty, cute.
- wakka - "drinkable" water.
Relations with other language familiesEdit
The Ainu language is classificated as language isolate, althought there exist several theories about a genetic relation. Some linguists suggest a relation to Altaic languages while others suggest a link to Indo-European languages. Some similarities also exist with northern native american languages.
- Ainu language at Ethnologue (8th ed., 1974). Note: Data may come from an earlier edition.
- D. Bradley, "Languages of Mainland South-East Asia," in O. Miyaoka, O. Sakiyama, and M. E. Krauss (eds), The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim, Oxford: Oxford University Press (2007), pp. 301–336. .
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ainu (Japan)". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Nakagawa 2013, pp. 8-11.
- 公益社団法人北海道アイヌ協会 (ed.). "アイヌ民族の概説 (general information of ethnic Ainu)" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-09-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Nakagawa 2013, pp. 26-27.
- Murasaki, Kyoko (2009-03-08). "Numerals in the Sakhalin Dialect of Ainu". Retrieved 2016-09-23. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Nakagawa 2013, pp. 100-107.
- Stolz, Christel (2015-03-10). Christel Stolz (ed.). Language Empires in Comparative Perspective. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 167. ISBN 978-3-11-040836-2. Retrieved 2016-09-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Zgusta, Richard (2015-07-10). The Peoples of Northeast Asia through Time: Precolonial Ethnic and Cultural Processes along the Coast between Hokkaido and the Bering Strait. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-30043-9.
- Refsing, edited in 5 volumes by Kirsten. "Origins of the Ainu language : the Ainu Indo-European controversy". 新潟大学OPAC. Retrieved 2019-12-21.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)