Auxiliary sciences of history
In the late 18th century the study of history became more empirical. This change was lead by the Göttingen School of History. Then in the mid-19th century, Leopold von Ranke also focused on it. These changes lead to the rise of the trained historian as a skill.
The auxiliary sciences of history include, but are not limited to:
- Archeology, the study of human activity
- Archaeography, the study of ancient documents
- Archival science, the study and theory of making and maintaining archives
- Chorography, the study of regions and places
- Chronology, the study of the sequence of past events
- Cliometrics, using economic theory and other mathematical methods to study history
- Codicology, the study of books
- Diplomatics, the study historical documents
- Epigraphy, the study of ancient inscriptions
- Genealogy, the study of family relationships
- Heraldry, the study of armorial devices
- Numismatics, the study of coins
- Onomastics, the study of proper names
- Paleography, the study of old handwriting
- Phaleristics, the study of military orders, fraternities, and award items
- Philately, the study of postage stamps
- Philology, the study of the language of historical sources
- Prosopography, the investigation of a historical group of individuals
- Sigillography, the study of seals
- Toponymy, the study of place-names
- Vexillology, the study of flags
- Drake, Miriam A. (2003). Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. Dekker Encyclopedias Series. 3. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8247-2079-2.
- Sweet, Rosemary (2004). Antiquaries: the discovery of the past in eighteenth-century Britain. London: Hambledon & London. p. xiv. ISBN 1-85285-309-3.
- Ranke, Leopold von (2011). Iggers, Georg G. (ed.). The Theory and Practice of History. Abingdon: Routledge. p. xix. ISBN 978-0-415-78032-2.
- Green, Anna; Troup, Kathleen, eds. (1999). The Houses of History: A Critical Reader in Twentieth-Century History and Theory. Manchester University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-7190-5255-2.
- Stern, Fritz, ed. (1972). The Varieties of History: From Voltaire to the Present (2nd ed.). New York: Vintage Books. p. 54. ISBN 0-394-71962-X.