Persian polymath, physician and philosopher (c.980–1037)

Ibn Sina (Persian: ابن سینا; 980 – June 1037 CE), commonly known in the West as Avicenna,[1][2] was a Persian Muslim polymath and the most important doctor and Islamic philosopher of his time.

A drawing of Avicenna from 1271

He wrote about 450 works on a wide range of subjects, and about 240 have survived, including 150 on philosophy and 40 on medicine.[3]

His most famous works are The Book of Healing – a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine – a medical encyclopedia.[4]

He is also known as Pour Sina (Persian: پور سینا), which means "Son of Sina" in English.[5] His full name in Arabic is Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā (ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا). In English, he is usually called Avicenna (Greek: Aβιτζιανός), his Latinized name.[6][7] Among his followers, he was/is known as al-Sheikh al-Ra'is.[8][9]

Early life change

Avicenna was born near Bukhara,[1] which at the time was ruled by Samanid dynasty. His father was a government official and his home served as a meeting place for men of learning. Avicenna had educated teachers while growing up. By age 14, he had mastered many subjects and had already memorized the Quran. From the age of 14 to 18, he taught himself because he could not find a tutor to provide more information than he already knew. He began to practice and learn about medicine at 16. He also learned about law and natural sciences. He was good at all subjects but decided medicine was easier for him than mathematics or metaphysics. Sometime before he turned 18 years old, he cured a Samanid emir. Because of his he was allowed into the royal libraries of the Samanid dynasty. By the age of 18, he had become a master of the most important works of science in his time. Also, his reputation as a doctor had grown.[10] At 20, he was regarded as one of the wisest people of his time.[11]

Writings change

Besides philosophy and medicine, Avicenna's works includes writings on astronomy, alchemy, geography and geology, psychology, Islamic theology, logic, mathematics, physics and poetry.[12][13]

Later life change

From 1015 to 1022, Avicenna was a high official and doctor to the ruler of Hamedan in western Iran. After the ruler of Hamedan died Avicenna was put in prison. He was released four months later when Hamadan was captured by Alā al-Dawla, the ruler of Isfahan. Alā al-Dawla only captured Hamadan for a short period of time. Avicenna escaped, disguised as a dervish, to Isfahan to work for Alā al-Dawla as a doctor. In 1030, the Ghaznavids attacked Isfahan and some of Avicenna's work was lost and possibly stolen. He died during an attack on the city of Hamedan.[14][15]

References change

  1. 1.0 1.1 Avicenna, Encyclopaedia Britannica
  2. Von Dehsen, Christian D.; Scott L. Harris (1999-10-21). Philosophers and Religious Leaders. Greenwood Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-57356-152-5.
  3. O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Avicenna", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
  4. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2007). "Avicenna". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Archived from the original on 31 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
  5. "Extracts from the history of Islamic pharmacy". Pharmacy History. Pharma Corner. Archived from the original on 2010-01-05. Retrieved 2007-11-11.
  6. Greenhill, William Alexander (1867), "Abitianus", in Smith, William (ed.), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. 1, p. 3, archived from the original on 2005-12-31, retrieved 2008-03-01
  7. Sizgorich, Tom. "Avicenna". World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 4 Dec. 2013.
  8. Amr, S. S.; Tbakhi, A. (2007). "Ibn Sina (Avicenna): The Prince of Physicians". Annals of Saudi Medicine. 27 (2): 134–135. doi:10.5144/0256-4947.2007.134. PMC 6077049. PMID 17420624.
  9. "Ibn Sina's 'Canon' book, a medical reference in Europe for 500 years! – 1001 Inventions".
  10. Sizgorich, Tom. "Avicenna." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.
  11. Ramsey, Matthew. "Avicenna." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 4 Dec. 2013.
  12. "Avicenna", in Encyclopædia Iranica, Online Version 2006". Iranica.com. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
  13. Charles F. Horne (1917), ed., The Sacred Books and Early Literature of the East Vol. VI: Medieval Arabia, p. 90-91. Parke, Austin, & Lipscomb, New York. (cf. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (973-1037): On Medicine, c. 1020 CE Archived 2007-10-30 at the Wayback Machine, Medieval Sourcebook.)

    "Avicenna (973-1037) was a sort of universal genius, known first as a physician. To his works on medicine he afterward added religious tracts, poems, works on philosophy, on logic, as physics, on mathematics, and on astronomy.

  14. Marmura, Michael. "Avicenna." Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Gale, 2006. Biography In Context. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.
  15. Ibn Sina / Avicenna – Saab Medical Library – AUB Amazon.com: Avicenne: A.H.370-428/A.D.980-1037 (Ibn Sina) : étude sur la vie, l'oeuvre et le système théologique et mystique d'Abou Ali el-Hosein Ben Abd Allah ... (His Les Grands philosophes) (French ed.) (9789060224854): Bernard Carra de Vaux: Books Archived 2007-04-05 at the Wayback Machine

More reading change

  • Avicenna by Lenn E. Goodman (Cornell University Press: 1992, updated edition 2006) – A good introduction to his life and philosophical thought.

Other websites change