Edward, the Black Prince

Prince of Wales (1330-1376)
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Edward, the Black Prince (Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, 15 June 1330 – Westminster Palace, 8 June 1376) was the eldest son of King Edward III of England.

Edward the Black Prince
Portrait c. 1430s
Prince of Wales
Reign15 June 1330 - 8 June 1376
Created12 May 1343
PredecessorEdward of Caernarfon
SuccessorRichard of Bordeaux
Born15 June 1330
Died8 June 1376 (aged 45)
SpouseJoan of Kent (m. 1361 - 1376)
FatherEdward III of England
The Black Prince's coat of arms, as heir-apparent to the English throne.
Effigy on tomb of Edward in Canterbury Cathedral

Edward was born at Woodstock Palace, near Oxford. He was made Prince of Wales in 1343, and followed his father into battle against France. He became a famous soldier, helping win the Battle of Crécy and commanding the Battle of Poitiers. He was a founding member of the Order of the Garter. In 1361, he married his cousin, Joan of Kent. They had two sons, Edward and Richard. The older son, Edward, died when he was only six.

Edward of Woodstock has become known in history as "the Black Prince", but no one is quite sure of the reason for the nickname. He died at the age of 45, and was buried at the Canterbury Cathedral. As his father was still living, he never became king himself. He asked his father to give the title Prince of Wales to his son Richard, who later became King Richard II of England.