Edward III of England
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Edward III (13 November 1312–21 June 1377) was a King of England. He ruled for 50 years.
|King of England; Lord of Ireland|
Edward III depicted in Cassell's History of England (1902)
|Reign||1 February 1327 – 21 June 1377 (50 years)|
|Coronation||1 February 1327|
|Successor||Richard II "of Bordeaux"|
|Regent||Roger Mortimer, Earl of March|
& Queen Isabella (de facto)
Council inc. Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster (1327–1330; de jure)
|Born||13 November 1312|
Windsor Castle, Berkshire
|Died||21 June 1377 (aged 64)|
Sheen Palace, Richmond
|Spouse||Philippa of Hainault|
|Issue||Edward, Prince of Wales "The Black Prince"|
Isabella, Dame de Coucy
Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster
Edmund of Langley, Duke of York
Mary, Duchess of Brittany
Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Pembroke
Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester
|House||House of Plantagenet|
|Mother||Isabella of France|
He made England the strongest military power in Europe.
Edward was crowned when he was fourteen years old, after his father was forced to abdicate. After his victory against the Scots, he declared himself heir to the French throne in 1337, and so started the Hundred Years' War. The war went very well for England; the victories of Crécy and Poitiers led up to the Treaty of Brétigny, by which he gained a lot of territory. When he became older, he was much less active, mostly a result of his bad health. He died of a stroke in 1377, aged 64.
Edward and his wife, Philippa of Hainault, had many children and, as they traveled, the children were generally known by where they were born (though the oldest son, Edward "of Woodstock," became known to later generations as Edward, the Black Prince). Prince Edward died before his father Edward III, and his older son, Edward "of Angouleme," had died a child, so younger son Richard "of Bordeaux" succeeded Edward III as Richard II of England before being deposed by his cousin Henry IV of England, whose father, John "of Gaunt", had married the heiress of Lancaster. His family, the House of Lancaster, fought the Wars of the Roses with the House of York descended from the daughter of Edward III's son Lionel "of Antwerp" (who was older than John) over who was the rightful king.
In his own time and for centuries after Edward III was praised a lot, but by Whig historians he was seen as an irresponsible adventurer. This view has turned, and modern historians see what a good king he was.
- The Medieval Sourcebook) has some good sources relating to the reign of Edward III:
- Man of War: Edward III, King of England at myarmoury.com