Japanese era name
Bunka (文化) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Kyōwa and before Bunsei. The period started in January 1804 and ended in April 1818. During this time, the emperors were Kōkaku-tennō (光格天皇) and Ninkō-Tennō (仁孝天皇).
Events of the Bunka eraEdit
- 1804 (Bunka 1): Hayashi Jussai explained the foreign policy of the Tokugawa shogunate to the emperor in Kyoto.
- June 1805 (Bunka 2): Genpaku Sugita was granted an audience with Shogun Tokugawa Ienari to explain differences between traditional medical knowledge and Western medical knowledge.
- 25 September 1810 (Bunka 7, 27th day of the 8thmonth): Earthquake in northern Honshū (Latitude: 39.900/Longitude: 139.900), 6.6 magnitude on the Richter Scale.
- 7 December 1812 (Bunka 9, 4th day of the 11th month): Earthquake in Honshū (Latitude: 35.400/Longitude: 139.600), 6.6 magnitude on the Richter Scale.
- 24 December 1813 (Bunka 10, 2nd day of the 11th month): Former-Empress Go-Sakuramachi died.
- 1817 (Bunka 14): Emperor Kōkaku traveled in procession to Sento Imperial Palace, a palace of an abdicated emperor. The Sento Palace at that time was called Sakura Machi Palace.
- 7 May 1817 (Bunka 14, 22nd day of the 3rd month): Kōkaku abdicated; and the succession passed to his son (senso). Soon after, Emperor Ninkō's role as monarch was confirmed by ceremonies (sokui).
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Bunka" Japan Encyclopedia, p. 91.
- Nussbaum, "Kōkaku Tennō," p. 546.
- Nussbaum, "Ninkō Tennō," p. 716; Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 420-421.
- Cullen, Louis M. (2003). A History of Japan, 1582-1941: Internal and External Worlds, pp. 117, 163.
- Sugita Genpaku. (1969). Dawn of Western Science in Japan: Rangaku Kotohajime, p. xvi.
- U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), NOAA/Japan: Significant Earthquake Database; retrieved 2011-12-13.
- Meyer, Eva-Maria. (1999). Japans Kaiserhof in der Edo-Zeit, p. 186; Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō), 後桜町天皇 (117); retrieved 2012-5-27.
- National Ditigial Archives of Japan, Sakuramachiden Gyokozu (in English); retrieved 2011-12-13.
- Meyer, Eva-Maria. (1999). Japans Kaiserhof in der Edo-Zeit, pp. 50; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 44; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami. Compare Kunaichō, Ceremony of Accession (Sokui-no-Rei); retrieved 2012-6-30.
- National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection
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