Chiang Kai-shek

Chinese politician and military leader (1887–1975)

Chiang Kai-shek was a Chinese nationalist politician and military leader who was President of the Republic of China, born in Xikou on October 31, 1887. His father was a merchant who died when Chiang was eight years old. Chiang became an officer in the army of the Manchu empire, but supported the Chinese Xinhai Revolution of 1911 that converted China into a republic.

Chiang Kai-shek

1943 photo of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in a military uniform.
Chairman of the National Government of China
In office
October 10, 1943 – May 20, 1948
Acting from August 1 to October 10, 1943
PremierSoong Tse-ven
Vice ChairmanSun Fo
Preceded byLin Sen
Succeeded byHimself (as President of the Republic of China)
In office
October 10, 1928 – December 15, 1931
PremierTan Yankai
Soong Tse-ven
Preceded byTan Yankai
Succeeded byLin Sen
Chairman of the Military Affairs Commission
In office
December 15, 1931 – May 31, 1946
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byPosition abolished
President of the Republic of China
In office
March 1, 1950 – April 5, 1975
PremierYen Hsi-shan
Chen Cheng
Yu Hung-Chun
Chen Cheng
Yen Chia-kan
Chiang Ching-kuo
Vice PresidentLi Zongren
Chen Cheng
Yen Chia-kan
Preceded byLi Zongren (Acting)
Succeeded byYen Chia-kan
In office
May 20, 1948 – January 21, 1949
PremierChang Chun
Wong Wen-hao
Sun Fo
Vice PresidentLi Zongren
Preceded byHimself (as Chairman of the Nationalist Government)
Succeeded byLi Zongren (Acting)
Premier of the Republic of China
In office
March 1, 1947 – April 18, 1947
Preceded bySoong Tse-ven
Succeeded byChang Chun
In office
November 20, 1939 – May 31, 1945
PresidentLin Sen
Preceded byHsiang-hsi Kung
Succeeded bySoong Tse-ven
In office
December 9, 1935 – January 1, 1938
PresidentLin Sen
Preceded byWang Jingwei
Succeeded byHsiang-hsi Kung
In office
December 4, 1930 – December 15, 1931
Preceded bySoong Tse-ven
Succeeded byChen Mingshu
Chairman of the Kuomintang
In office
May 12, 1936 – April 1, 1938
Preceded byHu Hanmin
Succeeded byHimself as Director-General of the Kuomintang
In office
July 6, 1926 – March 11, 1927
Preceded byZhang Renjie
Succeeded byWoo Tsin-hang and Li Yuying
Director-General of the Kuomintang
In office
April 1, 1938 – April 5, 1975
DeputyWang Jingwei
Chen Cheng
Preceded byHimself as Chairman of the Kuomintang
Succeeded byChiang Ching-kuo (as Chairman of the Kuomintang)
Personal details
Born(1887-10-31)October 31, 1887
Fenghua, Zhejiang, Qing dynasty, China
DiedApril 5, 1975(1975-04-05) (aged 87)
Taipei, Taiwan
Resting placeCihu Mausoleum, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Political partyKuomintang
Spouse(s)Mao Fumei
Yao Yecheng
Chen Jieru
Soong Mei-ling
ChildrenChiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Wei-kuo (adopted)
Alma materBaoding Military Academy, Imperial Japanese Army Academy Preparatory School
AwardsOrder of National Glory, Order of Blue Sky and White Sun, 1st class Order of the Sacred Tripod, Legion of Merit
Military service
Nickname(s)"Generalissimo" or "Red General"[1]
Branch/serviceRepublic of China Army
Years of service1911–1975
RankGeneral Special Class (特級上將)
Battles/warsXinhai Revolution, Northern Expedition, Sino-Tibetan War, Kumul Rebellion, Soviet invasion of Xinjiang, Chinese Civil War, Second Sino-Japanese War, Kuomintang Islamic Insurgency in China (1950–1958)
Chiang Kai-shek
"Chiang Kai-shek" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese蒋介石
register name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese蒋周泰
milk name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese蒋瑞元
school name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese蒋志清
adopted name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese蒋中正

He led the Republic of China from 1930 to 1949 on mainland China until he was overthrown by Mao Zedong[2] in the Chinese Civil War. He fled to Taiwan where he ruled from 1950 until his death in 1975, although his government was still officially called the Republic of China.



Chiang Kai-Shek was born on October 31, 1887, in Zhejiang province, China. He received a military education at the Baoding Military Academy and later studied in Japan at the Tokyo Shinbu Gakko. These formative years laid the groundwork for his future role as a military and political leader. Chiang's exposure to different ideologies and military strategies influenced his approach during pivotal moments in Chinese history. After his father died, Chiang joined the army. At first, he went to Baoding in northern China to study military science. Later, he went to Japan to learn more about the military.

In 1918, he joined the Nationalist Party of Sun Yat-sen. Sun Yat-sen helped Jiang Kai-Shek make a military academic school called Huangpu Military School. In 1926 and 1927 he led the Northern Expedition to conquer local warlords and unify China. After Sun Yat-sen died, he pushed out the Communists in 1927. In 1928, he made a new government in Nanjing, and became head of the state.[3] He focused on fighting the Communists and the Empire of Japan.[4] In 1937, Japan began to invade China, and Chiang was in charge of the Nationalist Chinese Army, until the war ended in 1945. Chiang ruled China until 1949, when Mao Zedong, who led the Communist Party of China, attacked Chiang and his officials, and they were forced to flee to Taiwan. Chiang established the Republic of China on the Island of Taiwan in 1949. He governed Taiwan until his death in 1975, leaving a complex legacy of authoritarian rule and anti-communism.


  1. Pakula, Hannah (2009). The last empress: Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the birth of modern China. Simon and Schuster. p. 346. ISBN 978-1-4391-4893-8. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  2. "Chiang Kai-shek - Facts & Summary -". Retrieved 2017-05-17.
  3. "Chiang Kai-shek - Facts & Summary -". Retrieved 2017-05-22.
  4. "Chiang Kai-shek | Chinese statesman". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-05-30.

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