Click beetle

family of insects

Click beetle is the common name for beetles in the family Elateridae. They are also called elaters, snapping beetles, spring beetles or skipjacks. These beetles can be found almost anywhere on Earth. They have the unusual ability to flick themselves into the air. When they do this, they make a "clicking" (or snapping) sound. The beetle does this by flexing the joint between sections of the thorax, where there is a spine on one side of the joint and a groove on the other. The peg is snapped into the groove. This makes a "click" that flicks the beetle into the air. If it lands on its back, then it repeats the click until it lands on its legs. Clicking is mainly used to escape from predators. The click can make it jump between 15 and 30 centimetres into the air.

Click beetles
Limoniscus violaceus.jpg
Limoniscus violaceus
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Superfamily:
Family:
Elateridae

Leach, 1815
Subfamilies[3]

Agrypninae
Campyloxeninae
Cardiophorinae
Dendrometrinae
Elaterinae
Eudicronychinae
Hemiopinae
Lissominae
Morostomatinae
Negastriinae
Oestodinae
Omalisinae[1]
Parablacinae
Physodactylinae
Pityobiinae
Plastocerinae
Subprotelaterinae
Tetralobinae
Thylacosterninae Sinopyrophorinae[2]

Synonyms

Ampedidae
Campylidae
Cavicoxumidae
Ludiidae
Monocrepidiidae
Pangauridae
Phyllophoridae
Plastoceridae
Prosternidae
Pyrophoridae
Synaptidae

A video of a click beetle (Agrypnus murinus) flicking itself into the air.

The Elateridae family of beetles was first defined in 1815. There are about 9,300 known species around the world.[4] This includes 965 species in North America.[5]

Most click beetles are under 2 centimeters long and dull in colour. Some species are large and colorful. They usually look for food during the night, and are not usually active during the day.

Click beetle larvae are called wireworms.

WirewormsEdit

Wireworms are the larvae of this beetle. They usually spend three or four years living under the soil. Here they feed on rotting plants and roots. They can cause damage to crops and gardens.[6][7] When this happens, they can be very difficult to kill off.[8][9][10][11]

Selected generaEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. Kusy, Dominik; Motyka, Michal; Bocek, Matej; Vogler, Alfried P.; Bocak, Ladislav (2018-11-20). "Genome sequences identify three families of Coleoptera as morphologically derived click beetles (Elateridae)". Scientific Reports. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 8 (1). doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35328-0. ISSN 2045-2322.
  2. Bi, Wen-Xuan; He, Jin-Wu; Chen, Chang-Chin; Kundrata, Robin; Li, Xue-Yan (2019-07-17). "Sinopyrophorinae, a new subfamily of Elateridae (Coleoptera, Elateroidea) with the first record of a luminous click beetle in Asia and evidence for multiple origins of bioluminescence in Elateridae". ZooKeys. Pensoft Publishers (864): 79–97. doi:10.3897/zookeys.864.26689. ISSN 1313-2970. PMC 6656784. PMID 31363346.
  3. Robin Kundrata, Nicole L. Gunter, Dominika Janosikova & Ladislav Bocak (2018) Molecular evidence for the subfamilial status of Tetralobinae (Coleoptera: Elateridae), with comments on parallel evolution of some phenotypic characters. Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny 76: 137-145.
  4. Schneider, M.C.; et al. (2006). "Evolutionary chromosomal differentiation among four species of Conoderus Eschscholtz, 1829 (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Agrypninae, Conoderini) detected by standart staining, C-banding, silver nitrate impregnation, and CMA3/DA/DAPI staining". Genetica. 128 (1–3): 333–346. doi:10.1007/s10709-006-7101-5. PMID 17028962.
  5. Majka, C.G. & P.J. Johnson (2008). "The Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada: faunal composition, new records, and taxonomic changes" (PDF excerpt). Zootaxa. 1811: 1–33.
  6. Vernon, R.S.; et al. (2008). "Transitional sublethal and lethal effects of insecticides after dermal exposures to five economic species of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae)". Journal of Economic Entomology. 101 (2): 365–374. doi:10.1603/0022-0493(2008)101[365:TSALEO]2.0.CO;2. PMID 18459400.
  7. Parker, William E. & Julia J. Howard (2001). "The biology and management of wireworms (Agriotes spp.) on potato with particular reference to the U.K.". Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 3 (2): 85–98. doi:10.1046/j.1461-9563.2001.00094.x.
  8. Doane, J.F.; et al. (1975). "The orientation response of Ctenicera destructor and other wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) to germinating grain and to carbon dioxide". Canadian Entomologist. 107 (12): 1233–1252. doi:10.4039/Ent1071233-12.
  9. van Herk, W.G.; et al. (2008). "Mortality of a wireworm, Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), after topical application of various insecticides". Journal of Economic Entomology. 101 (2): 375–383. PMID 18459401.
  10. van Herk, Willem G. & Robert S. Vernon (2007). "Soil bioassay for studying behavioral responses of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) to inecticide-treated wheat seed". Environmental Entomology. 36 (6): 1441–1449. doi:10.1603/0046-225X(2007)36[1441:SBFSBR]2.0.CO;2. PMID 18284772.
  11. https://www.planetnatural.com/pest-problem-solver/garden-pests/wireworm-control/

ReferencesEdit

Other websitesEdit