Click beetle

family of beetles

Click beetle is the common name for beetles in the family Elateridae. They are also called elaters, snapping beetles, spring beetles or skipjacks.

Click beetles
Limoniscus violaceus.jpg
Limoniscus violaceus
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Superfamily:
Family:
Elateridae

Leach, 1815
A video of a click beetle (Agrypnus murinus) flicking itself into the air.

These beetles can be found almost anywhere on Earth. They have the unusual ability to flick themselves into the air. When they do this, they make a "clicking" (or snapping) sound. The beetle does this by flexing the joint between sections of the thorax, where there is a spine on one side of the joint and a groove on the other. The peg is snapped into the groove. This makes a "click" that flicks the beetle into the air. If it lands on its back, then it repeats the click until it lands on its legs. Clicking is mainly used to escape from predators. The click can make it jump between 15 and 30 centimetres into the air.

Basic informationEdit

The Elateridae family was defined in 1815. There are about 9,300 known species.[1] This includes 965 species in North America.[2]

Some species are large and colorful, but most are under two centimeters long and dull in colour. They usually look for food during the night, and are usually not active during the day.

The oldest known species come from the Triassic period. There are only about 9,000 species known.[3][4]

WirewormsEdit

Wireworms are the larvae of this beetle. They usually spend three or four years living under the soil. Here they feed on rotting plants and roots. They can cause damage to crops and gardens.[5][6] When this happens, they can be very difficult to kill off.[7][8][9][10]

Their famiily, the Elateridae, is known for its effects on agriculture, where they are notable pests.

Selected generaEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. Schneider, M.C.; et al. (2006). "Evolutionary chromosomal differentiation among four species of Conoderus Eschscholtz, 1829 (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Agrypninae, Conoderini) detected by standart staining, C-banding, silver nitrate impregnation, and CMA3/DA/DAPI staining". Genetica. 128 (1–3): 333–346. doi:10.1007/s10709-006-7101-5. PMID 17028962. S2CID 1901849.
  2. Majka, C.G. & P.J. Johnson (2008). "The Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada: faunal composition, new records, and taxonomic changes" (PDF excerpt). Zootaxa. 1811: 1–33. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1811.1.1.
  3. Schneider M.C.; et al. (2006). "Evolutionary chromosomal differentiation among four species of Conoderus Eschscholtz, 1829 (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Agrypninae, Conoderini) detected by standard staining, C-banding, silver nitrate impregnation, and CMA3/DA/DAPI staining". Genetica. 128 (1–3): 333–346. doi:10.1007/s10709-006-7101-5. PMID 17028962. S2CID 1901849.
  4. Majka C.G.; P.J. Johnson (2008). "The Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada: faunal composition, new records, and taxonomic changes" (PDF excerpt). Zootaxa. 1811: 1–33. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1811.1.1.
  5. Vernon, R.S.; et al. (2008). "Transitional sublethal and lethal effects of insecticides after dermal exposures to five economic species of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae)". Journal of Economic Entomology. 101 (2): 365–374. doi:10.1603/0022-0493(2008)101[365:TSALEO]2.0.CO;2. PMID 18459400. S2CID 198970056.
  6. Parker, William E. & Julia J. Howard (2001). "The biology and management of wireworms (Agriotes spp.) on potato with particular reference to the U.K.". Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 3 (2): 85–98. doi:10.1046/j.1461-9563.2001.00094.x. S2CID 84346624.
  7. Doane, J.F.; et al. (1975). "The orientation response of Ctenicera destructor and other wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) to germinating grain and to carbon dioxide". Canadian Entomologist. 107 (12): 1233–1252. doi:10.4039/Ent1071233-12.
  8. van Herk, W.G.; et al. (2008). "Mortality of a wireworm, Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), after topical application of various insecticides". Journal of Economic Entomology. 101 (2): 375–383. doi:10.1603/0022-0493(2008)101[375:moawao]2.0.co;2. PMID 18459401. S2CID 23504859.
  9. van Herk, Willem G. & Robert S. Vernon (2007). "Soil bioassay for studying behavioral responses of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) to inecticide-treated wheat seed". Environmental Entomology. 36 (6): 1441–1449. doi:10.1603/0046-225X(2007)36[1441:SBFSBR]2.0.CO;2. PMID 18284772. S2CID 39869295.
  10. "How to Identify and Get Rid of Wireworms".

ReferencesEdit

Other websitesEdit