Coronavirus

group of related viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds

Coronavirus is a virus in the family Coronaviridae.[1][2] They are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense RNA genome.[3] They have a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genome size of coronaviruses is about 26 to 32 kilobases,[4] which is extraordinarily large for an RNA virus.

Coronavirus
Coronaviruses 004 lores.jpg
Virus classification
Group:
Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Order:
Family:
Subfamily:
Genus:
Type species
Coronavirus
Species

The name "coronavirus" comes from the Latin word corona, meaning "crown" or "halo", and refers to how virions look under an electron microscopy (E.M.).[5] They have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections looking like a crown. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins on the surface of the virus. They decide which cells the virus can infect.

Proteins that contribute to the structure of coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N).

Coronaviruses often stick to the hands, and the virus is often caused by people touching their hands to their mouth. It gets in the trachea and makes it way down to the lungs, where it sticks to cells and tissues to replicate itself.

DiseasesEdit

 
3D Animated virion of The SARS-CoV-2 virus strain

Coronaviruses infect the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts of mammals and birds. Six different strains of coronaviruses infect humans. These include:

Coronaviruses are believed to cause many common colds in human adults. The significance and economic impact of coronaviruses is hard to assess. Unlike rhinoviruses (another common cold virus), human coronaviruses are easy to grow in the laboratory.

Other pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. de Groot R.J. et al 2011. "Family Coronaviridae". In King A.M.Q. et al (eds) (eds.). Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier, Oxford. pp. 806–828. ISBN 978-0-12-384684-6.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
  2. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. "ICTV Master Species List 2009 – v10" (xls).
  3. enveloped = has viral envelopes covering their protective protein capsids; positive sense = the RNA sequence may be directly translated into the desired viral proteins.
  4. One kilobase = 1000 base pairs
  5. virion = complete virus particle.