domestic animal
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Dogs are mammals, usually kept as pets or for work on farms or the police. Some dogs are trained to be rescue dogs, and join teams such as mountain rescue. They have been bred by humans from their ancestral wolves. They were the first animals to live with humans, as far as we know.[4]

Temporal range: Late Pleistocene
(c. 14,000 yrs B.P.) to present [1]
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
C. familiaris
Binomial name
Canis familiaris
  • C. aegyptius Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. alco C. E. H. Smith, 1839,
  • C. americanus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. anglicus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. antarcticus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. aprinus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. aquaticus Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. aquatilis Gmelin, 1792
  • C. avicularis Gmelin, 1792
  • C. borealis C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. brevipilis Gmelin, 1792
  • C. cursorius Gmelin, 1792
  • C. domesticus Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. extrarius Gmelin, 1792
  • C. ferus C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. fricator Gmelin, 1792
  • C. fricatrix Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. fuillus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. gallicus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. glaucus C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. graius Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. grajus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. hagenbecki Krumbiegel, 1950
  • C. haitensis C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. hibernicus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. hirsutus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. hybridus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. islandicus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. italicus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. laniarius Gmelin, 1792
  • C. leoninus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. leporarius C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. lupus familiaris Linnaeus,1758
  • C. major Gmelin, 1792
  • C. mastinus Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. melitacus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. melitaeus Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. minor Gmelin, 1792
  • C. molossus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. mustelinus Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. obesus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. orientalis Gmelin, 1792
  • C. pacificus C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. plancus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. pomeranus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. sagaces C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. sanguinarius C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. sagax Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. scoticus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. sibiricus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. suillus C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. terraenovae C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. terrarius C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. turcicus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. urcani C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. variegatus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. venaticus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. vertegus Gmelin, 1792
A German Shepherd is a type of dog

There was a lot of variety among wolves in the Late Pleistocene.[1] The dingo is also a dog, but many dingos have become wild animals again and live independently of humans in the range where they occur (parts of Australia).

Today, some dogs are used as pets, and others are used to help humans do their work. They are popular pets because they are usually playful, friendly, loyal, and listen to humans. Thirty million dogs in the United States are registered as pets.[5] Dogs eat both meat and vegetables, often mixed together and sold in stores as dog food. Dogs often have jobs including police dogs, army dogs, assistance dogs, fire dogs, messenger dogs, hunting dogs, herding dogs, or rescue dogs.

They are sometimes called "canines" from the Latin word for dog - canis. Wolves are also canids. A baby dog is called a pup or puppy. A dog is called a puppy until it is about one year old.[6]

Dogs are sometimes referred to as "man's best friend" because they are kept as domestic pets, are usually loyal, and like being around humans. Dogs like to be petted, but only when they can first see the petter's hand before petting; one should never pet a dog from behind.

August 26 is National Dog Day.[7] While March 26 is National Puppy Day.[8]

Appearance and behaviour change

Dogs can smell and hear better than humans but cannot see well in color because they are color blind. Due to the anatomy of the eye, dogs can see better in dim light than humans. They also have a wider field of vision.

Like wolves, wild dogs travel in groups called packs. Packs of dogs are ordered by rank, and dogs with low rank will submit to other dogs with a higher rank. The highest ranked dog is called the alpha male. A dog in a group helps and cares for others. Domesticated dogs often view their owner as the alpha male.[9]

Lifespan of dogs change

This graph shows the correlation between weight and lifespan.

Different dog breeds have different lifespans. In general, smaller dogs live longer than bigger ones.[10] The size and the breed of the dog change how long the dog lives, on average. Breeds such as the Dachshund usually live for fifteen years, Chihuahuas can reach age twenty. On the other hand, the Great Dane has an average lifespan of six to eight years; some Great Danes have lived for ten years. An American Bulldog lives for around 15 years. Bigger dogs will have smaller lives than smaller dogs because of the pressure on its heart to move around.

Origin of dogs change

All dogs are descended from wolves, by domestication and artificial selection. This is known because DNA genome analysis has been done to discover this.[11][12] They have been bred by humans. The earliest known fossil of a domestic dog is from 31,700 years ago in Belgium.[13] Dogs have lived with people for at least 30,000 years. In 2013, a study was published that showed that the skull and teeth of a canid dated as 33,000 years, had characteristics closer to a dog than to a wolf. The authors concluded that "this specimen may represent a dog in the very early stages of domestication, i.e., an "incipient" dog." The researchers suggest that it was a line that did not lead to modern dogs.[14] Genetically, this material is closer to that of a modern dog than that of a wolf.[15] Other signs of domestication are that sometimes, dogs were buried together with humans.[16] Evidence of this is a tomb in Bonn, where a man of about 50 years of age, a woman of about 25 years of age, the remains of a dog, plus other artifacts were found. Radiocarbon dating showed that the human bones were between 13.300 and 14.000 years old.

Dogs and humans change

Dogs are often called "man's best friend" because they fit in with human life. Man refers to humankind and not just guys (Old English). Dogs can serve people in many ways. For example, there are guard dogs, hunting dogs, herding dogs, guide dogs for blind people, and police dogs. There are also dogs that are trained to smell for diseases in the human body or to find bombs or illegal drugs. These dogs sometimes help police in airports or other areas. Sniffer dogs (usually beagles) are sometimes trained for this job. Dogs have even been sent by Russians into outer space, a few years before any human being. The first dog sent up was named Laika, but she died within a few hours.

Dog breeds change

Dogs are bred into very different breeds: here a Great Dane and a small Chihuahua.
See also List of dog breeds.

There are at least 800 breeds (kinds) of dogs. [source?] Dogs whose parents were the same breed will also be that breed: these dogs are called purebred or pure pedigree dogs. Dogs with parents from different breeds no longer belong to one breed: they are called mutts, mixed-breed dogs, hybrids, or mongrels. Some of the most popular breeds are sheepdogs, collies, poodles and retrievers. It is becoming popular to breed together two different breeds of dogs and call the new dog's breed a name that is a mixture of the parents' breeds' two names. A puppy with a poodle and a pomeranian as parents might be called a Pomapoo. Instead of being called mutts, these kinds of dogs are known as designer dog breeds. These dogs are normally used for prize shows and designer shows. They can be guide dogs.

Photogallery change

Related pages change

References change

  1. 1.0 1.1 Thalmann, Olaf; Perri, Angela R. (2018). "Paleogenomic Inferences of Dog Domestication". In Lindqvist, C.; Rajora, O. (eds.). Paleogenomics. Population Genomics. Springer, Cham. pp. 273–306. doi:10.1007/13836_2018_27. ISBN 978-3-030-04752-8.
  2. Linnæus, Carl (1758). Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I (in Latin) (10 ed.). Laurentius Salvius. pp. 38–40. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  3. Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 575–577. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. Wilson, Don E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. JHU Press. pp. 575–577. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0.
  4. Irving-Pease, Evan K.; Ryan, Hannah; Jamieson, Alexandra; Dimopoulos, Evangelos A.; Larson, Greger; Frantz, Laurent A.F. 2018. Paleogenomics of Animal Domestication. In Lindqvist, C.; Rajora, O. (eds) Paleogenomics. Population Genomics. Springer, Cham. pp. 225–272. doi:10.1007/13836_2018_55. ISBN 978-3-030-04752-8
  5. Gifford, Clive; Lisa Clayden (2002). Family Flip Quiz Geography. Miles Kelly Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84236-146-7.
  6. "When Does My Puppy Finish Growing? How Long Do Puppies Grow?". American Kennel Club. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  7. National Dog Day | Celebrating Dogs
  8. "NATIONAL PUPPY DAY — March 23". 23 March 2023.
  9. Robbins, Nancy (14 February 2012). Domestic Cats: Their History, Breeds and Other Facts. Nancy Robbins. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-4700-7538-5.
  10. "Good Dogs Live Longer — ScienceNOW". Archived from the original on 29 November 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  11. Lindblad-Toh K, Wade CM, Mikkelsen TS et al. 2005. Genome sequence, comparative analysis, and haplotype structure of the domestic dog. Nature 438 pp803–819
  12. Savolainen, Peter; Ya-ping Zhang, Jing Luo, Joakim Lundeberg, Thomas Leitner 2002. Genetic evidence for an East Asian origin of domestic dogs. Science 298 pp1610–3.
  13. World's first dog lived 31,700 years ago, ate big Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News, 10/17/2008
  14. Nikolai D. Ovodov u. a.: A 33,000-Year-Old Incipient Dog from the Altai Mountains of Siberia: Evidence of the Earliest Domestication Disrupted by the Last Glacial Maximum. In: PLoS ONE 6(7), 2011 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022821
  15. A.S. Druzhkova, O. Thalmann, V.A. Trifonov, J.A. Leonard, N.V. Vorobieva et al.: Ancient DNA Analysis Affirms the Canid from Altai as a Primitive Dog. In: PLoS ONE, Band 8(3), 2013 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057754
  16. Darcy F. Morey: Burying key evidence: the social bond between dogs and people. In: Journal of Archaeological Science, Band 33/2, 2006, S. 158–175. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2005.07.009