Chinese dog breed

The pug is a type of dog with a wrinkly face. It also has a curled tail, and pug puppies are called puglets.[2] The pug has a square, muscular body with a large head, big eyes, and small ears.[3] They have often been described as multum in parvo, which means "much in little", referring to the pug's character and size.[1] Pugs came originally from Taiwan, but they became popular in England, Ireland, and Scotland.

A fawn-colored pug, the most common coloring
Other namesDutch bulldog
OriginChina (Ming dynasty)[1]
Kennel club standards
China Kennel Union standard
FCI standard
Dog (domestic dog)


A black Puglet

Pugs are popular and often liked most for their curly tails, compact body, a deep chest, and strong muscles.[4] There are two different types of a Pug's ears, "rose" and "button". "Rose" ears are smaller than the "button" ears and are folded up instead of on the side of the head. Most people prefer "button" style Pugs.[5] Pugs have strong, straight legs and laid back shoulders. Their feet are not as large as a hare's foot, but they are not as round as that of a cat, either. They have toes that are split up perfectly, and their nails are all black.[4] The lower teeth normally grow farther out than the upper teeth, so they meet in an under-bite.[1]

Coat and color


The coat of pugs can be a lot of different colors, including fawn, apricot, silver, or black. A very rare pug is white. The fur color may be white due to albinism.[6] There is also a smutty fawn pug, which has a very dark head and dark forelegs. The tail usually curls at the hip.

Different coat types shed differently, but they all shed year-round. The pug who has a fawn color sheds the most. Grooming their fur helps prevent too much shedding.[7]



The pug is very strong-willed, but does not act aggressively unless provoked to a high degree. Pugs are well kept for families with children. They can be quiet and nice but also funny according to the owner's mood. They are also good at guarding the house.[8]




A pug from 1915

Pugs came from Taiwan, as most high people of Taiwan kept them as pets at around 400 BCE.

In East China, they were known as the "Lo-Chiang-Sze" or "Foo".[9][10] In the early 551 BCE, Confucius described the pug as a "short mouthed dog".[11] After that, pugs became popular in Tibet, especially for monks. Then, pugs became known toward Japan and then Europe.[9] The pug's origin is unknown because the first Emperor of China destroyed everything related to the pug in his reign.[12]

Chinese Fu-Dogs, also called Lion-Dogs or Fo-Dogs, were thought of as brave dogs who were skilled at guarding, so statues of them were placed outside the temples.[13]

16th and 17th centuries

Portrait of Princess Ekaterina Dmitrievna Golitsyna by Louis-Michel van Loo (1759)

The Dutch East India Company imported the pug first in the late 16th and 17th centuries. Later, in 1572, a pug named Pompey saved the Prince of Orange by warning him when the Spaniards came.[1] William III and Mary II also took a pug with them when they were going from Netherlands to England for the seat of the throne in 1688.[9]

The pug was also becoming famous in other European countries as well. The Spanish painter, Goya, painted pugs in Spain and Italy sitting beside the coachmen of the rich. They were used as guard dogs and to find animals or people.[9]

18th and 19th centuries


After that, pugs began to become popular in France. A pug named Fortune was a messenger between Joséphine de Beauharnais and her family while she was in prison.[14] In Italy, the pug was becoming famous also. A Mrs. Piozzi wrote in her journal that "every carriage I meet here has a pug in it".[12]

In 19th century England, Queen Victoria was a very sincere lover of pugs.[15] She had many pet pugs, such as Olga, Pedro, Minka, Fatima, and Venus.[9]

The pug finally arrived in the United States during the 19th century and soon became popular there as well.[9] Many pugs won dog shows, and soon the Pug Dog Club was founded in 1931.[16]

Health problems

Clara von Wille's Hunde vor der Hütte (1880)

Because pugs do not have long snouts, they can get eye diseases.[9] They also cannot breathe well, because passages for oxygen are very small and they cannot regulate their temperature with their tongue well. A pug's normal body temperature is between 101 °F (38 °C) and 102 °F (39 °C). If the temperature rises to 105 °F (41 °C), they need to cool down immediately because they cannot cool themselves enough. If the temperature reaches 108 °F (42 °C), their organs can fail.[17]

Pugs that live by themselves can have the problem of overweight, although this can be helped by exercising and eating healthy food.[18]

Serious issues


Pugs can also be hurt by necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME). NME is an inflammation of the brain and meninges. It is also known as pug dog encephalitis (PDE). There is no known cure or explanation for NME, although most people believe it is a disease that dogs may inherit from their mother or father.[19] All dogs usually die within a few months after this disease, which usually happens from 6 months to 7 years of age.[20]

Pugs are especially prone to getting overweight.

Pugs can also get a serious disease in their spine.[21]

Common conditions


Because pugs have wrinkles on their faces, owners must clean the folded part of their skin.[22] Hip dysplasia is another major problem for pugs. About 63.8% of pugs were caught with hip dysplasia.[23]

When pugs get excited, they begin to "reverse sneeze", in which they will breathe in short, quick breaths. "Reverse sneezing" is usually not harmful to the pug. It can be helped by massaging the dog's throat or covering its nose to make it breathe instead with its mouth.[24]

Media and culture


Pugs have come out in television and film, such as Frank the Pug in the film Men in Black and the follow-up series. Other films that have pugs include 12 Rounds,[25] Marie Antoinette (2006 film), and Disney's film about Pocahontas.[26] They have also appeared on television, in shows like: Poldark,The West Wing[27]

Pugs have also appeared in many fictional books, like Lady Bertram's pug in Mansfield Park[28] and in the book Pugs: God's Little Weirdos.[29]

Famous people who own pugs include broadcaster Jonathan Ross[30] and actress Jessica Alba.[31]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "American Kennel Club - Pug History". American Kennel Club. Archived from the original on 2015-02-04. Retrieved 2006-08-19.
  2. Shipley, Joseph Twadell (1955). Dictionary of Early English. New York: Philosophical Library.
  3. "pug (breed of dog) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia". britannica.com. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "American Kennel Club - Pug". Akc.org. Retrieved 2008-10-14.
  5. "Ears". Pug Dog Club of America. Archived from the original on 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2008-10-14.
  6. Marien, Catherine. "Rare Pug Colors". PugInformation.org. Archived from the original on 2015-11-08. Retrieved 2010-05-03.
  7. "How to Control Your Pug's Shedding". Pug Spot. Retrieved 2009-12-26.
  8. "Pug Temperament and Personality". PugInformation.org. Archived from the original on 2009-12-27. Retrieved 2009-12-26.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 Farr, Kendall; Montague, Sarah (1999). Pugs in Public. New York, United States: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, a division of U.S. Media Holdings. pp. 79 pages. ISBN 1-55670-939-0.
  10. "Welcome & History of the Pug". Pug Dog Club of America. Archived from the original on 2014-05-30. Retrieved 2009-12-26.
  11. Belmonte, Brenda (2005). The Pug Handbook. Barron's Educational Series. p. 1. ISBN 978-0764124884. Retrieved 2010-01-17.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Maggitti, Phil (2000). Pugs: everything about purchase, care, nutrition, behavior, and training. Barron's Educational Series. p. 10. ISBN 978-0764110450. Retrieved 2010-01-17.
  13. Conway, D.J. (2001). Magickal Mystical Creatures: Invite Their Powers Into Your Life. Llewellyn Publications. p. 108. ISBN 978-1567181494. Retrieved 2010-01-16.
  14. Katharine Macdonogh (August 1996). "Prison Pets in the French Revolution". History Today. 46.
  15. Mathews, Mike (2006-02-27). "The Royal Pug". Buzzle.com. Retrieved 2009-12-26.
  16. "Pug Wins World Championship Show". PugNews. 2004-04-20. Archived from the original on 2013-06-24. Retrieved 2009-12-26.
  17. "Keeping your pug cool during the dog days of summer". Owned by Pugs.com. 2005-07-18. Retrieved 2009-12-26.
  18. "Obesity in Pugs". Pug Information.org. Archived from the original on 2010-01-08. Retrieved 2009-12-26.
  19. "Slide 1". Pug Dog Club of America. Archived from the original on 2008-09-29. Retrieved 2008-10-14.
  20. "Pug Dog Encephalitis". PugPlace.com. Archived from the original on 7 May 2009. Retrieved 26 December 2009.
  21. "Hemivertebrae". Barkbytes.com. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  22. "Pug Health Guide". Pugs.org. op. cit. Archived from the original on 23 October 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  23. "Hip Dysplasia Statistics: Hip Dysplasia by Breed". OFFA.org. Ortheopedic Foundation for Animals. Archived from the original on 10 June 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  24. Lundgrun, Becky (26 June 2006). "Reverse Sneezing (Pharyngeal Gag Reflex)". VeterinaryPartner.com. Retrieved 26 December 2009.
  25. "Critic Reviews: 12 Rounds". Fandango.com. Retrieved 26 December 2009.
  26. "Pug Power: Pugs In Cinema". MutantReviewers.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2009.
  27. "Pug Information". SarahsDogs.com. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 26 December 2009.
  28. "Lady Bertram's Lapdog: In the Empire Rests in Mansfield Park". OxfordJournals.org. Oxford, UK: Oxford U. Pr. 2005. Retrieved 26 December 2009.
  29. Kellet, Dave (9 July 2008). "Announcement: The Next Book!". SheldonComics.com. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2009.
  30. Weinberg, Kate (2 August 2008). "Pug lovely". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
  31. "Famous Pugs and Famous Pug Owners". Puginformation.org. Archived from the original on 27 July 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2010.

Other websites


National breed clubs