Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor

Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany

Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real power of those positions. With his wife, Maria Theresa of Austria, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine, but lost Lorraine when he had to give it to France. He was the father of Marie Antoinette, the Queen of France.

Francis I
Martin van Meytens 006.jpg
Francis I was the consort of Austrian ruler Maria Theresa
Holy Roman Emperor
Reign13 September 1745 – 18 August 1765
Coronation4 October 1745, Frankfurt
PredecessorCharles VII
SuccessorJoseph II
Born(1708-12-08)8 December 1708
Ducal Palace of Nancy, Lorraine
Died18 August 1765(1765-08-18) (aged 56)
Palace of Innsbruck, Austria
Imperial Crypt, Vienna
SpouseMaria Theresa of Austria
IssueArchduchess Maria Elisabeth
Archduchess Maria Anna
Archduchess Maria Carolina
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen
Archduchess Maria Elisabeth
Archduke Charles Joseph
Maria Amalia, Duchess of Parma
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Archduchess Maria Carolina
Archduchess Maria Johanna Gabriela
Archduchess Maria Josepha
Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Sicily
Ferdinand, Duke of Modena
Marie Antonia, Queen of France [1]
Maximilian Francis, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne
Full name
Francis Stephen
HouseHouse of Lorraine
FatherLeopold, Duke of Lorraine
MotherÉlisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans
ReligionRoman Catholicism


He married Maria Theresa of Austria for love. with the input of the Prince of Craon. They had sixteen children who are named here:

  1. Archduchess Maria Elisabeth (1737-1740).
  2. Archduchess Maria Anna (1738-1789).
  3. Archduchess Maria Caroline (1740-1741).
  4. Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II (1741-1790)
  5. Archduchess Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen (1742-1798)
  6. Archduchess Maria Elisabeth (1743-1808).
  7. Archduke Charles Joseph (1745-1761).
  8. Archduchess Maria Amalia (1746-1804)
  9. Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II (1747-1792)
  10. Archduchess Maria Caroline (stillborn 1748).
  11. Archduchess Maria Johanna Gabriela (1750-1762).
  12. Archduchess Maria Josepha (1751-1767).
  13. Queen Maria Carolina of Naples and Sicily (1752-1814)
  14. Queen Marie Antoinette of France and Navarre, born Maria Antonia (1755-1793)
  15. Archduke Maximilian Francis (1756-1801)

Titles and stylesEdit

  • 8 December 1708 - 4 June 1723: His Highness Prince Francis Stephan of Lorraine
  • 4 June 1723 - 27 March 1729: His Highness The Hereditary Prince of Lorraine
  • 27 March 1729 - 12 July 1737: His Royal Highness The Duke of Lorraine
  • 12 July 1737 - 20 January 1745: His Royal Highness The Grand Duke of Tuscany
  • 20 January 1745 - 18 August 1765: His Imperial Majesty The Holy Roman Emperor


  1. "Marie Antoinette". Biography.