specific learning disability characterized by troubles with reading

Dyslexia, or word blindness, is a learning disability that affects reading.[1][2] Different people are affected to different degrees. The condition that makes it difficult to learn and understand things in the same way others do. It is a very common problem.

Dyslexia affects the way the brain understands words. The most common signs of dyslexia are reading and writing problems.[3]

Estimates are that in the United States between 5 and 9% of school children have dyslexia. Another source says it affects 3–7% of the population.[4] Up to 20% of the general population may have some degree of symptoms.[5] While dyslexia is more often diagnosed in boys, this is partly explained by a self-fulfilling referral bias among teachers and professionals.[6]



A person can have dyslexia even if they are intelligent. Their education might be affected by their dyslexia or not. Recent studies show there are some small business owners that have dyslexia. Researchers think many dyslexic entrepreneurs are successful because they can delegate responsibilities (of writing letters) and still be good at speaking.[7]

At the end of the 19th century,[8] scientists did a lot of research about dyslexia and found some of the reasons that people are dyslexic.



Children with dyslexia can be helped. One way teachers help dyslexic students is to break words into different sounds.[9] The student must learn how to write the different sounds and create words. This helps with reading and writing.[10]



Speech is a newcomer in evolutionary terms.[11][12] Like the large heads of babies, human speech evolved very recently.[13][14]

Newer biological functions tend to be less reliable than older functions.[15]


  1. "Dyslexia Information Page". National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. 2 November 2018.
  2. Siegel LS (November 2006). "Perspectives on dyslexia". Paediatrics & Child Health. 11 (9): 581–7. doi:10.1093/pch/11.9.581. PMC 2528651. PMID 19030329.
  3. Leseyane, Monicca; Mandende, Peter; Makgato, Mary; Cekiso, Madoda (2018-03-05). "Dyslexic learners' experiences with their peers and teachers in special and mainstream primary schools in North-West Province". African Journal of Disability. 7: 7. doi:10.4102/ajod.v7i0.363. ISSN 2226-7220. PMC 5843944. PMID 29535918 – via AJOD.
  4. Kooij, J. J. Sandra (2013). Adult ADHD diagnostic assessment and treatment (3rd ed.). London: Springer. p. 83. ISBN 9781447141389. Archived from the original on 30 April 2016.
  5. "How many people are affected by/at risk for reading disorders?". National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  6. Arnett A.B., Pennington B.F., Peterson R.L., Willcutt E.G., DeFries J.C., & Olson R.K. 2017. Explaining the sex difference in dyslexia. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines: 58(6), 719–727.
  7. Brent Bowers (December 6, 2007). "Tracing Business Acumen to Dyslexia". New York Times. Cites a study by Julie Logan, professor of entrepreneurship at Cass Business School in London, among other literature.
  8. "History of Dyslexia | Dyslexia Awareness". www.dyslexia-aware.com. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  9. Knight, Cathryn (2018). "What is dyslexia? An exploration of the relationship between teachers' understandings of dyslexia and their training experiences". Dyslexia. 24 (3): 207–219. doi:10.1002/dys.1593. PMC 6099274. PMID 30019501.
  10. Kirby, John R.; Silvestri, Robert; Allingham, Beth H.; Parrila, Rauno; La Fave, Chantal B. (2008). "Learning Strategies and Study Approaches of Postsecondary Students With Dyslexia". Journal of Learning Disabilities. 41 (1): 85–96. doi:10.1177/0022219407311040. ISSN 0022-2194. PMID 18274505. S2CID 87300 – via SAGE Journals.
  11. Botha, Rudolf P; Everaert, Martin, eds. (2013). The evolutionary emergence of language: evidence and inference. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-965484-0. OCLC 828055639.
  12. Botha, Rudolf P.; Knight, Chris (2009). The prehistory of language. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-954587-2. OCLC 819189595.
  13. Bickerton D. 1990. Language and species. University of Chicago Press.
  14. Burling, Robbins (2005). The Talking Ape: how language evolved. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-927940-1. OCLC 750809912.
  15. Maynard Smith J. & Szathmary E. 1995. The major transitions in evolution, p301, 17.8 The genetics of language disorders. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9-780198-502944