Harmonia

ancient Greek goddess of harmony and concord; her opposite is Eris

Harmonia (/hɑːrˈmniə/; Ancient Greek: Ἁρμονία) is the goddess of peace and agreement in Greek mythology. She is the daughter of Ares and Aphrodite. She is the opposite of Eris, goddess of disagreement. Her Roman equivalent is Concordia.

Origins change

Harmonia is the daughter of Ares and Aphrodite. Her children are Ino, Polydorus, Autonoe, Agaue and Semele with Kadmos. As goddess of peace, she is the opposite of Eris, the goddess of disagreement.[1]

About change

Harmonia met Cadmus on a journey to Samothrace. He took her away with the help of Athena. When Cadmus wanted to leave Thebes, Harmonia followed him. When they came to the Enchelii, they helped them in their war against the Illyrians. They won over the enemy. Cadmus then became king of the Illyrians. But unfortunately, later he was turned into a snake. Harmonia was sad. She coloured herself with stripes. She asked Cadmus to come to her. As she was hugged by the snake Cadmus in wine, the gods then turned her into a snake. She was unable to stand in her snake form.[2]

Story change

Harmonia is known for a dangerous necklace she had on her wedding day. When Athena made Cadmus the king of Thebes, Zeus gave him Harmonia. All the gods attended the wedding. Cadmus gave the bride with a cloth and the necklace. The necklace was made by Hephaestus. This necklace is commonly known as the necklace of Harmonia. It brought misfortune to all who had it. Other stories said that Harmonia took this necklace (ὅρμος) from some of the gods. It might be either from Aphrodite or Athena.[3][4]

Polynices took the necklace. They gave it to Eriphyle. She asked her husband, Amphiaraus, to attack against Thebes. Through Alcmaeon, the son of Eriphyle, the necklace came into the hands of Arsinoe (named Alphesiboea in some stories). Then, the sons of Phegeus, Pronous and Agenor, took it. Lastly, the sons of Alcmaeon, Amphoterus and Acarnan, kept it in the temple of Athena Pronoea at Delphi. The necklace had brought bad luck to all who had took it. It continued to do so even after it was kept at Delphi. Phayllus stole it from the temple to make his lover happy. His lover was the wife of Ariston. She wore it for a time. Then, her youngest son became mad. He set fire to the house. In the fire, she died and all her treasures were burned.[5][6][7]

Hyginus has another story. According to him, the thing which brought bad luck to the children of Harmonia is not a necklace. But it is a cloth given to Harmonia by Hepheastus and Hera. The necklace gave peace and had Harmonia's powers in it.[8]

Related pages change

  • Eris - the goddess of disagreement and the opposite god of Harmonia in Greek mythology

References change

  1. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology by Pierre Grimal and A. R. Maxwell-Hyslop, ISBN 0-631-20102-5, 1996, page 230: "Illyrius (Ιλλυριός) The youngest son of Cadmus and Harmonia. He was born during their expedition against the Illyrians"
  2. Apollodorus, 3.5.4; Euripides, Bacchae 1233; Ovid, Metamorphoses 4.562 &c. (cited by Schmitz)
  3. Apollodorus, 3.4.2 (cited by Schmitz)
  4. Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 4.48 & 5.49; Pindar, Pythian Odes 3.167; Statius, Thebaid 2.266; compareHesiod, Theogony 934; Homeric Hymn to Apollo 195 (cited by Schmitz)
  5. Apollodorus, 3.6.2; Scholia ad Pindar, Pythian Odes 3.167 (cited by Schmitz)
  6. Apollodorus, 3.7.5–7 (cited by Schmitz)
  7. Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 6, p. 232; Parthenius, Erotica Pathemata 25 (cited by Schmitz)
  8. Hyginus, Fabulae 148