goddess of wisdom and war in ancient Greek religion and mythology

Athena is the Greek goddess of wisdom, warfare, handiwork, and strategy. She is one of the Twelve Olympians. Athena's symbol is the owl, the wisest of the birds. She also had a shield called Aegis, which was a gift given to her by Zeus. She is usually shown wearing her helmet and often with her shield. The shield later had Medusa's head on it; after Perseus killed her, he gave the head of Medusa to Athena for safekeeping and she put the head on her shield.

Athena, in front of the parliament building in Vienna, Austria

Athena is the protector of Athens, Greece, a city named after her. The Parthenon, which is on the Acropolis in Athens, is her most famous temple. She also helped many heroes, including Heracles, Jason, and Odysseus, and is always seen with Nike, the goddess of victory.

Birth change

There are many stories about Athena's birth. In Hesiod's Theogony, Zeus married Metis, but soon after, Zeus was scared of her giving birth to a child because the Oracle of Delphi had said that she will give birth to Athena, and a son that would overthrow Zeus, just like Zeus overthrew Kronos, who overthrew his father Uranus.

To stop Metis giving birth to her son, Zeus made a plan. He played a game with Metis, they shape shifted into different animals, Metis turned turned into a fly, Zeus saw his chance and he swallowed her whole. Zeus was too late, as Metis was already pregnant.

While she was inside Zeus's head, Metis made a helmet, armor, and a robe for Athena. The hammering noise caused Zeus to have a severe headache. The headache became worse. Hephaestus split his head open and Athena came out full grown and with armor on.

Titles and patronages change

Athena is the goddess of knowledge, purity, arts, crafts, learning, justice and wisdom. She also plays a tough, clever and independent role. Athenians thought she helped them win the Trojan war. Athena often helped heroes, especially ones who were not just brave but clever, like Jason and Perseus. People joined her cult, hoping she would give them victory. She was also the creator of the olive tree and flute.

Attributes and epithets change

Athena was given many other titles. She has the epithet Ergane as the patron of craftsmen and artisans. With the epithet Parthenos she was especially worshipped in the festivals of the Panathenaea and Pamboeotia where both militaristic and athletic displays took place. With the epithet Promachos she led in battle. With the epithet Polias, Athena was the protector of not only Athens but also of many other cities, including Argos, Sparta, Gortyn, Lindos, and Larisa.

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