Hotaki dynasty

Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns (1709-1738)

The Hotaki dynasty was a dynasty founded by Pashtun[1] Ghiji tribe. In 1709 by Mirwais Hotak at Kandahar, Afghanistan. They revolted and made their land independent from foreign ruler, but later they invaded Persia and defeated the great Iranian Empire of the Shi'a Safavids.

Hotaki dynasty
Flag of Hotaki dynasty
Hotak Empire at its peak (1722–1729)
Hotak Empire at its peak (1722–1729)
Common languagesPashto and Persian (poetry)[a]
Sunni Islam
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
• 1709–1715
Mirwais Hotak
• 1715–1717
Abdul Aziz Hotak
• 1717–1725
Mahmud Hotak
• 1725–1730
Ashraf Hotak
• 1725–1738
Hussain Hotak
• Revolt by Mirwais Hotak
• Disestablished
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Safavid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty

Mahmud Hotaki, son of Mirwais, ruled Persia until he died in 1725 and then his cousin Ashraf ruled until 1729 when Nader Shah Afshar defeated him.[2]

The last king was Hussain Hotaki in Kandahar until he was defeated by Nader Shah in 1738.[3]


  1. Hanifi, M. Jamil (2001). "ḠILZĪ". Encyclopaedia Iranica Online. Vol. X, Fasc. 6, pp. 670–672, "(...) one of three major Pashtun/Paxtun tribal confederations in Afghanistan."
  2. Malleson, George Bruce (1999). History of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878. London: p. 227.
  3. "AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF PERSIA DURING THE LAST TWO CENTURIES (A.D. 1722-1922)". Edward Granville Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 33.


  1. Shah Hussain Hotak wrote poetry in Pashto and Persian.