José María Velasco Ibarra
José María Velasco Ibarra (March 19, 1893 – March 30, 1979) was an Ecuadorian political figure. He was elected five times to the post of president of Ecuador: 1934–1935, 1944–1947, 1952–1956, 1960–1961, and 1968–1972. But only once (1952–1956) did he complete the constitutional mandate.
José María Velasco Ibarra
|President of Ecuador|
September 1, 1934 – May 20, 1935
|Preceded by||Abelardo Montalvo|
|Succeeded by||Antonio Pons|
May 28, 1944 – March 30, 1946
|Preceded by||Carlos Alberto Arroyo del Río|
|Succeeded by||Carlos Mancheno Cajas|
September 1, 1952 – August 31, 1956
|Preceded by||Galo Plaza|
|Succeeded by||Camilo Ponce Enríquez 1961|
September 1, 1960 – November 7, 1961
|Preceded by||Camilo Ponce Enríquez|
|Succeeded by||Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy|
September 1, 1968 – February 15, 1972
|Preceded by||Otto Arosemena|
|Succeeded by||Guillermo Rodríguez|
|Born||March 9, 1893|
|Died||March 30, 1979 (aged 86)|
|Spouse(s)||Corina Parral de Velasco Ibarra|
|Alma mater||Central University of Ecuador|
In 1933, he stood in the Ecuadorian presidential election and received 80% of the votes cast, the highest in Ecuadorian history. Velasco Ibarra traveled through several Latin American countries, including Peru, and restored Ecuador's global image. His first presidency began on September 1, 1934, but he was ousted in August 1935 by the military.
In May 1944, because of the May 28 "Glorious Revolution", he was named Supreme Chief of the Republic and was later named Constitutional President by the Constituent Assembly. In August 1947, he was again deposed by the military. Three defense ministers perpetuated the coup against Velasco Ibarra; among them was minister Mancheno, who later was his successor.
In 1952, he again won the presidential election, and began his third term as president on September 1, 1952. This time, he served his entire term, which ended on August 31, 1956. His third term was a time of progress for Ecuador: 311 schools were constructed, with another 104 in progress. More than 1359 km of roads were constructed, and 1057 km more were improved.
In 1960, he was elected president for the fourth time and was removed on November 7, 1961. In 1960, he nullified the Rio de Janeiro Protocol, which led to conflicts between Ecuador and Peru, including Paquisha in 1981 and the War of El Cenepa in 1995.
Finally, in 1968 Velasco Ibarra won the presidency for a fifth time. This government ended abruptly on February 15, 1972, when once more he was deposed in a bloodless coup, which brought General Guillermo Rodríguez Lara to power. In total, Velasco Ibarra governed nearly 13 years, making him the longest-serving president in Ecuadorian history.