Kōka (弘化) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Tenpō and before Kaei. This period started in December of 1844 and ended in February of 1848. During this time, the emperors were Ninkō-tennō (仁孝天皇) and Kōmei-tennō (孝明天皇).
Events of the Kōka eraEdit
- 21 February 1846 (Kōka 3, 26th day of the 1st month): Ninkō died; and the succession passed to his son (senso). Soon after, Emperor Kōmei's role as monarch was confirmed by ceremonies (sokui).
- March 1846 (Kōka 3): Earthquake in Sanriku (Latitude: 39.500/Longitude: 142.000), 6.9 magnitude on the Richter Scale
- 9 May 1847 (Kōka 4): Earthquake in Nagano (Latitude: 37.000/Longitude: 138.000), 7.4 on Richter Scale
- 1848 (Kōka 5): The last subscription Noh performance of the pre-modern era.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kōka" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 546.
- Nussbaum, "Ninkō Tennō," p. 716.
- Nussbaum, "Kōmei Tennō," p. 553.
- National Diet Library, "Portraits of Modern Historical Figures"; retrieved wo11-12-14.
- Brinkley, Francis. (1893). History of the Empire of Japan, p. 349.
- Meyer, Eva-Maria. (1999). Japans Kaiserhof in der Edo-Zeit, p. 186; Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō), 仁孝天皇 (120). Retrieved 2012-5-27.
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 123; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 44; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami. Compare Kunaichō, Ceremony of Accession (Sokui-no-Rei). Retrieved 2012-6-30.
- NOAA/Japan "Significant Earthquake Database" -- U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC)
- Rath, Eric C. (2006). The Ethos of Noh: Actors And Their Art, p. 218.
- Oka, Isaburô et al. (1997). Hiroshige: Japan's Great Landscape Artist, p. 83.
- National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection
|Era or nengō: