Kidney stone disease
Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) happens in the urinary tract. Kidney stones typically form in the kidney and leave the body during urination. A small stone may pass without causing symptoms. I
|Kidney stone disease|
|Other names||Urolithiasis, kidney stone, renal calculus, nephrolith, kidney stone disease,|
|A kidney stone, 8 millimeters (0.3 in) in diameter|
|Symptoms||Severe pain in the lower back or abdomen, blood in the urine, vomiting, nausea|
|Causes||Genetic and environmental factors|
|Diagnostic method||Based on symptoms, urine testing, medical imaging|
|Differential diagnosis||Abdominal aortic aneurysm, diverticulitis, appendicitis, pyelonephritis|
|Prevention||Drinking fluids such that more than two liters of urine are produced per day|
|Treatment||Pain medication, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy|
|Frequency||22.1 million (2015)|
f a stone grows to more than 5 millimeters (0.2 in) it can cause blockage of the ureter resulting in severe pain in the lower back or abdomen. A stone may also result in blood in the urine, vomiting, or painful urination. About half of people will have another stone within ten years.
- "Kidney Stones in Adults". February 2013. Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- Knoll T, Pearle MS (2012). Clinical Management of Urolithiasis. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 21. ISBN 9783642287329. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.
- Miller, NL; Lingeman, JE (2007). "Management of kidney stones" (PDF). BMJ. 334 (7591): 468–72. doi:10.1136/bmj.39113.480185.80. PMC 1808123. PMID 17332586. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 December 2010.