Kidney stone disease

formation of mineral 'stones' in the urinary tract

Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) happens in the urinary tract.[1] Kidney stones typically form in the kidney and leave the body during urination.[1] A small stone may pass without causing symptoms.[1] I

Kidney stone disease
Other namesUrolithiasis, kidney stone, renal calculus, nephrolith, kidney stone disease,
A color photograph of a kidney stone, 8 millimetres in length.
A kidney stone, 8 millimeters (0.3 in) in diameter
SpecialtyUrology, nephrology
SymptomsSevere pain in the lower back or abdomen, blood in the urine, vomiting, nausea[1]
CausesGenetic and environmental factors[1]
Diagnostic methodBased on symptoms, urine testing, medical imaging[1]
Differential diagnosisAbdominal aortic aneurysm, diverticulitis, appendicitis, pyelonephritis[2]
PreventionDrinking fluids such that more than two liters of urine are produced per day
TreatmentPain medication, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy[1]
Frequency22.1 million (2015)
Deaths16,100 (2015)

If a stone grows to more than 5 millimeters (0.2 in) it can cause blockage of the ureter resulting in severe pain in the lower back or abdomen.[1][3] A stone may also result in blood in the urine, vomiting, or painful urination.[1] About half of people will have another stone within ten years.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 "Kidney Stones in Adults". February 2013. Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  2. Knoll T, Pearle MS (2012). Clinical Management of Urolithiasis. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 21. ISBN 9783642287329. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.
  3. Miller, NL; Lingeman, JE (2007). "Management of kidney stones" (PDF). BMJ. 334 (7591): 468–72. doi:10.1136/bmj.39113.480185.80. PMC 1808123. PMID 17332586. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 December 2010.


  1. kushwah, saurabh; kushwaha, saurabh (2022-08-17). "Kidney Stone in Hindi – कारण, लक्षण, इलाज". Osm Gyan (in Hindi). Archived from the original on 2022-08-21. Retrieved 2022-08-21. {{cite web}}: Check |author-link= value (help); External link in |author-link= (help)CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) CS1 maint: date and year (link)