List of most luminous stars

Wikimedia list article

This list of most luminous stars is of Milky Way and Magellanic Cloud objects. A few stars in other local group galaxies can be seen in enough detail to work out their the luminosities. The list is more or less complete for stars down to 2,000,000 times the luminosity of the Sun.

Despite their extreme luminosity, many of these stars are too distant to be observed with the naked eye. Stars that are at least sometimes visible to the unaided eye have their apparent magnitude (6.5 or brighter) highlighted in blue.


Star name Bolometric
luminosity
(in solar units)
Absolute
bolometric
magnitude
Approx. distance
from solar system
(in light years)
Apparent
visible magnitude
Effective
temperature (K)
R136a1 (in LMC) 8710000 −12.5 163000 12.23 53000±3000
Melnick 34 (BAT99-116 in LMC)[a] 7079000 −11.9[1] 160000 13.10 53000
M33-013406.63 (in Triangulum Galaxy) 640000010280000 −12.2 to −12.7[2] 23800003070000 16.1
WR 25 (in Carina Nebula)[b] 6300000 −12.16[3] 7500 8.80 50100 / ?
NGC 2363-V1[c] 6300000 −12.16[4][5] 11100000 17.88 1300026000
R136c (in LMC) 5623000 −12.0 160000 12.86 51000
Eta Carinae (in Carina Nebula)[d] 5000000 −12.0[6] 7500 −0.8 to 7.9[7] 37200
BAT99-98 (AB12 in LMC) 5000000 −12.0[8] 165000 13.70 45000
G0.238-0.071 5000000 −12.0[9] 26000
HD 38282 (R144 in LMC)[e] 4500000 −11.9[10] 160000 11.11 47000
R136a2 (in LMC) 4266000 −11.7 160000 12.34 53000
V4998 Sagittarii (near Quintuplet Cluster) 4000000 −11.7[11] 25000 12000
R136a3 (in LMC) 3802000 −11.6 160000 12.97 53000
R136a6 (in LMC) 3311000 −11.5 165000 13.35
G0.070+0.025 3300000 −11.5[9] 26000
Var A-1 (in M31) 3200000 −11.5[12] 2450000 17.143[13] 2040028100[12]
Peony Star (WR 102ka) 3200000 −11.5 26100 25100
VFTS 682 (in LMC) 3200000 −11.5 160000 16.1 52210±2500
WR 42e 3200000 −11.5[14][f] 25000 14.53 43652
BAT99-33 (R99 in LMC) 3200000 −11.4[8] 160000 11.45 28000
LSS 4067 3000000 −11.4[15] 8200 11.64 32800
NGC 3603-B 2900000 −11.3[1] 24000 11.33 42000
G0.059-0.068 2880000 −11.4[9] 26000
R136a4 (in LMC) 2884000 −11.3 160000 13.96 51000±6000[1]
WR 102hb 2600000 −11.3[16] 26000 25100
AFGL 2298[g] 2500000 −11.25[4] 33000
Melnick 42 (in LMC) 2500000 −11.25 160000 12.8 47300
WR 102ea 2500000 −11.25[16] 26000 25100
WR 85 2500000 −11.25[3] 15300 10.03 50100[3]
BAT99-117 (R146 in LMC) 2500000 −11.2[8] 160000 13.116
NGC 3603-A1a 2500000 −11.2[1] 24000 11.18 (combined A1a + A1b) 42000
LHO 146 2500000 −11.2 26000 8.7 ~35000
Var 83 (in M33) 2240000 −11.1[17] 3000000 16.40 1800037000
WR 158 2200000 −11.1[3] 26000 11.24 44700[3]
Arches-F6 2300000 −11.1 25000 33900
Arches-F9 2300000 −11.1 25000 36600
HD 5980A[h] (in SMC) 2200000 −11.1 200000 11.7 2100053000
WR 24 (in Carina Nebula) 2200000 −11.1[3] 8200 6.48 50100
HD 269810 (in LMC) 2200000 −11.1[18] 170000 12.28 52500
Cygnus OB2-516 2200000 −11.1 5000 11.84[19]
BAT99-96 (in LMC) 2200000 −11.1[8] 160000 13.76
G0.058+0.014 2140000 −11.1[9] 26000
R136a5 (in LMC) 2089000 −11.0 165000 13.71 ~50000[1]
LBV 1806-20 2000000 −11.0 38700 1800032000
Arches-F4 2000000 −11.0 25000 36800
WR 82 2000000 −11.0[3] 17200 11.55 56200[3]
WR 131 2000000 −11.0[3] 38600 12.08 44700[3]
WR 147[i] 2000000 −11.0[3] 2100 14.89 39800[3]
Arches-F7 2000000 −11.0 25000 32900
Arches-F1 2000000 −11.0 25000 33200
WR 22 A in Carina Nebula 2000000 −11.0 8200 6.42 44700
  1. Suspected as binary from extreme X-ray luminosity and variable radial velocity.
  2. 208-day binary
  3. Luminous Blue Variable in external galaxy NGC 2363, that appears to be undergoing a "great outburst" like Eta Carinae but less luminous.
  4. Identified as a binary system, or possibly three stars. The secondary is also luminous at around 1,000,000 times the Sun, but almost completely swamped by the primary.
  5. Binary system containing two luminous WNh stars.
  6. The paper mistakenly lists the blometric magnitude as −10.5 insead of −11.5.
  7. Luminous Blue Variable, peak luminosity shown.
  8. Variable, luminosity was five times higher at outburst in 1994.
  9. This is a binary system but the secondary is much less luminous than the primary.

ReferencesEdit

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