List of largest stars

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Below is a list of the largest stars, so far discovered, ordered by radius. The unit of measurement used is the radius of the Sun (696,392 km; 432,717.927 mi).

Size comparison of stars.

Additional methods Edit

A few stars are in the Zodiac, and the Moon sometimes passes in front of them. This allows calculating their size by their angular size and distance. This is not very reliable. Most do not, so astronomers calculate their size by their spectral type (which gives their luminosity), distance, and brightness. This is even less reliable.

Caveats Edit

These objects are extremely big, thousand to millions of times the volume of our Sun, and extremely luminous. These stars also have extended atmospheres and photospheres, and are often shrouded in dust (Like NML Cygni, WOH G64 , UY Scuti and VY Canis Majoris). This makes their true size uncertain. Many of these stars vary in size and brightness (like Betelguese, Antares, Mu Cephei and VY Canis Majoris).

These objects are also far away, sometimes intergalactic (eg: WOH G64 is in the Large Magellanic Cloud). This makes it even harder to calculate their sizes. Most stars found will not be above 1,500 times the Sun's radius. Their mass would hardly hold together, and a lot of material would be ejected by powerful solar winds, forming the nebulae we see around them.

Astrophysicist Robert F. Wing did an in-depth look on the largest stars, recognising Antares, Betelgeuse, Mu Cephei, and VV Cephei A as well-accepted largest stars, while also looking at other stars known for cool temperatures and high brightness like VY Canis Majoris and NML Cygni. The Stefan–Boltzmann law says these stars would have a large size.[1]

List Edit

List of the largest stars
Star name Solar radii
(Sun = 1)
Method[a] Notes
Orbit of Saturn 1,940-2,169 Reported for reference
RX Telescopii 1,882[2] AD This size was calculated using Gaia Data, which may not be accurate for red supergiant stars.
The sizes above may not be correct because theories say stars cannot be larger than approximately 1,500 R,[3] and WOH G64 is possibly the largest star known[4][5]
Maximum star size (Milky Way)[3] ~1,500 Not an exact number. It is thought stars cannot get much larger than this, based on current theories, or they would be unstable.[3]
WOH G64 1,540-1,730[6] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud and likely the largest known star.[4][5]
RSGC1-F02 1,499[7]-1,549[8] L/Teff Located in the massive open cluster RSGC1.
RSGC1-F01 1,435[7]-1,551[8] L/Teff Located in the massive open cluster RSGC1.
VY Canis Majoris 1,420[9] AD VY CMa is described as the largest star in the Milky Way although galactic red supergiants above are possibly larger but they have less accurate radius estimates.[10] Older estimates originally estimated the radius of VY CMa to be above 3,000 R,[11] or as little as 600 R.[12] The 1,420 R measure has a margin of error of ±120 R.[9]
Mu Cephei (Herschel's "Garnet Star") 1,420[3]
KY Cygni 1,420[3] L/Teff
CM Velorum 1,416[13]
AH Scorpii 1,411[14] AD AH Sco is a variable by nearly 3 magnitudes in the visual range, and an estimated 20% in total luminosity. The variation in diameter is not clear because the temperature also varies.
WOH S281 1,376[15] L/Teff
IRAS 05280-6910 (LMC 582) 1,367-1,738[16] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
IRAS 04509-6922 1,360[17] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
HV 888 (WOH S140) 1,353[18]-1,974[15] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
PHL 293B's luminous blue variable 1,348–1,463[19] This star, a blue supergiant, may not exist anymore.
W Cephei 1,320[20] AD
HR 5171 Aa 1,315 ± 260[21] AD HR 5171 A is a highly distorted star in a close binary system, losing mass to the secondary. It is also variable in temperature, thus probably also in diameter. Other estimates range from 1,060-1,160 solar radii[22] to 1,490 ± 540 solar radii.
SMC 18136 1,310[23] L/Teff Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud.
V774 Sagittarii 1,310[20] AD
WOH S279 1,298[15] L/Teff
SW Cephei 1,298[20] AD
RW Cygni 1,273[20] AD
SP77 46-44 (WOH S341) 1,258[18] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
Westerlund 1-237 1,245[8] L/Teff Red supergiant within the Westerlund 1 super star cluster.
HV 2255 (WOH S97) 1,235[15] L/Teff
SMC 5092 1,220[23] L/Teff
SP77 31-18 (WOH S72) 1,211[15] L/Teff
IRC -10414 1,200[24] L/Teff IRC -10414 is a rare red supergiant companion to WR 114 that has a bow shock.
LMC 175464 1,200[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
LMC 135720 1,200[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
SMC 69886 1,190[23] L/Teff
NML Cygni 1,183[25] L/Teff NML Cyg is calculated to be between 1,640 R and 2,770 R based on a more accurate measure of its distance combined with assumptions of its temperature.[26]
HD 90587 1,181[20] AD
RSGC1-F03 1,168[7]-1,326[8] L/Teff Located in the massive open cluster RSGC1.
EV Carinae 1,168[18] L/Teff Older estimates based on much larger distances have given higher luminosities, and consequently larger radii.[27][28]
Westerlund 1-26 1,165 or 1,221[29] L/Teff Very uncertain parameters for an unusual star with strong radio emission. The spectrum is variable but apparently the luminosity is not.
LMC 119219 1,150[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
WOH S264 1,149[15] L/Teff
HD 143183 (V558 Normae) 1,147[30] AD
V602 Carinae 1,142[20] AD
MY Cephei 1,135[31] L/Teff Not to be confused with Mu Cephei (see above). Older estimates have given up to 2,440 R based on much cooler temperatures.[32]
HV 2561 1,133[15] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
J004035.08+404522.3 1,130-1,230[33] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LMC 17338 1,122[15] L/Teff
VX Sagittarii 1,120-1,550[34] L/Teff VX Sgr is a pulsating variable with a large visual range and is calculated to vary in size from 1,350 R to 1,940 R.[35]
LMC 141430 1,110[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
S Persei 1,109[8] L/Teff A red supergiant located in the Perseus Double Cluster. Levsque et al. 2005 calculated radii of 780 R and 1,230 R based on K-band measurements.[3] Older estimates gave up to 2,853 R based on higher luminosities.[28]
IRAS 04516-6902 1,100[17] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LMC 175746 1,100[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
ST Cephei 1,100[20] AD
HD 102115 1,091[20] AD
RSGC1-F08 1,088[8]-1,146[7] L/Teff Located in the massive open cluster RSGC1.
HV 11423 1,086[15] L/Teff HV 11423 is variable in spectral type (observed from K0 to M5), thus probably also in diameter. In October 1978, it was a star of M0I type.
HV 2084 1,084[15] L/Teff
LMC 174714 1,080[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LMC 68125 1,080[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
SMC 49478 1,080[23] L/Teff
SMC 20133 1,080[23] L/Teff
R Fornacis 1,078[36] L/Teff
Trumpler 27-1 1,073[37] L/Teff
SMC 8930 1,070[23] L/Teff
V366 Andromedae 1,067[20] AD
Orbit of Jupiter 1,064-1,173 Reported for reference
PZ Cassiopeiae 1,062[37] L/Teff
SMC 25879 1,060[23] L/Teff
IM Cassiopeiae 1,059[20] AD
LMC 136042 1,051[15] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
VV Cephei A 1,050[38] EB VV Cep A is a highly distorted star in a close binary system, losing mass to the secondary for at least part of its orbit. Data from the most recent eclipse has cast additional doubt on the accepted model of the system. Older, obsolete estimates give up to 1,800 solar radii.
LMC 142202 1,050[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LMC 146126 1,050[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
RSGC1-F05 1,047[8]-1,177[7] L/Teff Located in the massive open cluster RSGC1.
SMC 10889 1,046[15] L/Teff
LMC 67982 1,040[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
SU Persei 1,039[20] AD In the Perseus Double Cluster
HV 11262 1,030[15] L/Teff
RW Leonis Minoris 1,028[39] L/Teff
SMC 83593 1,019[15] L/Teff
AS Cephei 1,018[20] AD
WOH S74 1,014[15] L/Teff
W Persei 1,011[8] L/Teff
LMC 143877 1,010[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
HD 167861 1,007[20] AD
RSGC1-F12 1,005[8] L/Teff Located in the massive open cluster RSGC1.
BU Sagittarii 1,005[20] AD
RT Carinae 995[20] AD
RSGC1-F13 993[8]-1,098[7] L/Teff Located in the massive open cluster RSGC1.
NO Aurigae 991[20] AD
SMC 46497 990[23] L/Teff
LMC 140296 990[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
SMC 55188 988[15] L/Teff
RSGC1-F09 986[7]-1,231[8] L/Teff Located in the massive open cluster RSGC1.
NR Vulpeculae 980[3] L/Teff
SMC 12322 980[23] L/Teff
LMC 177997 980[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
HV 2236 971[15] L/Teff
SMC 59803 970[23] L/Teff
Stephenson 2-03 969[8] L/Teff
Quyllur 965[40] Distant red supergiant that the James Webb Space Telescope saw.
Westerlund 1-20 965[8] L/Teff Red supergiant within the Westerlund 1 super star cluster.
V396 Centauri 965[20] AD
GCIRS 7 960[41]-1,000[42] AD Located at the galactic center. Margin of possible error: ±92 R[41] or ±150 R.[42]
RSGC1-F11 955[8]-1,015[7] L/Teff Located in the massive open cluster RSGC1.
V341 Lacertae 953[20] AD
HD 155737 951[20] AD
SMC 50840 950[23] L/Teff
HU Puppis 950[20] AD
HV 894 946[15] L/Teff
J004424.94+412322.3 945-1,300[33] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy.
RM 1-361 933[15] L/Teff
HV 916 932[15] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
RSGC1-F10 931[7]-954[8] L/Teff Located in the massive open cluster RSGC1.
S Cassiopeiae 930[43][44] DSKE
WOH S71 926[15] L/Teff
IX Carinae 920[3] L/Teff
HV 2112 916[45] L/Teff Most likely candidate for a Thorne-Żytkow object.
RSGC1-F04 914[8]-1,082[7] L/Teff Located in the massive open cluster RSGC1.
CK Carinae 909[20] AD
IRAS 04498-6842 900[46] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LMC 54365 900[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
HV 996 894[18] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
NSV 25875 891[25] L/Teff
LMC 1318 891[15] L/Teff Probably the largest AGB Star.
HV 12501 890[18] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LMC 109106 890[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
RSGC1-F06 885[7]-967[8] L/Teff Located in the massive open cluster RSGC1.
Stephenson 2-11 884[8] L/Teff
IRC -20412 882[20] AD
IRAS 05558-7000 880[17] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
SMC 30616 880[23] L/Teff
LMC 64048 880[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
V437 Scuti 874[25] L/Teff
IRAS 04407-7000 870[17] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
IRAS 05329-6708 870[17] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
SMC 46662 868[15] L/Teff
HV 986 867[18] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
J004047.82+410936.4 860-1,010[33] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
AZ Cygni 861[20] AD
AZ Cephei 860[20] AD
V669 Cassiopeiae 859[25] L/Teff
HV 2360 857[18] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
HV 5870 856[18] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
BI Cygni 850[47]-1,240[3] L/Teff
SMC 15510 850[23] L/Teff
KW Sagittarii 850[20] AD Older estimates have given larger radii and consequently cooler temperatures.[3]
V358 Cassiopeiae 848[20] AD
BD-15 4915 841[20] AD
UV Carinae 840[20] AD
WOH S60 836[15] L/Teff
V1185 Scorpii 830[25] L/Teff
LMC 61753 830[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LMC 62090 830[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
VX Aurigae 825[20] AD
UY Scuti 825[18]–1,708 ± 192[14] AD The Gaia Data Release 2 directly measured UY Scuti and got a radius of 755 R respectively. However, the Gaia parallax might be unreliable due to a very high level of astrometric noise.
V353 Puppis 824[20] AD
UW Aquilae 823[20] AD
Stephenson 2-14 821[8] L/Teff
BC Cygni 820[37] L/Teff
V362 Aurigae 819[20] AD
LMC 116895 814[15] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LMC 142199 810[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
IRAS 05294-7104 810[17] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
PMMR 41 809[15] L/Teff
HD 268850 808[15] L/Teff
YZ Persei 804[20] AD
LMC 134383 802[15] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
IRAS 05402-6956 800[17] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
V441 Persei 799[8] L/Teff
PMMR 34 796[15] L/Teff
BU Persei 795[8] L/Teff
BO Carinae 790[3] L/Teff
IRAS 05298-6957 790[17] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LMC 142907 790[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
V641 Cassiopeiae 788[20] AD
HV 963 787[15] L/Teff
6 Geminorum (BU Geminorum) 787[20] AD
U Lacertae 785[37] L/Teff
SMC 11709 781[15] L/Teff
RS Persei 770[48]-831[31] AD & L/Teff In the Perseus Double Cluster. Margin of possible error: ±30 R.[48]
AV Persei 770[3] L/Teff In the Perseus Double Cluster
V355 Cephei 770[3] L/Teff Mauron et al. 2011 derive 37,000 L, which implies a size around 300 R.[27]
V517 Monocerotis 768[20] AD
HD 303250 766[20] AD
PMMR 141 762[15] L/Teff
HV 2551 762[15] L/Teff
SMC 52334 761[15] L/Teff
J004124.80+411634.7 760-1,240[33] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy and has a possible hot companion.
V915 Scorpii 760[49][50] L/Teff
S Cephei 760[51] AD
HD 95687 758[20] AD
J004447.08+412801.7 755-825[33] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
Psi1 Aurigae 753[20] AD A red supergiant similar to Antares and Betelgeuse (see below), but much further away.
GP Cassiopeiae 751[8] L/Teff
Outer limits of the asteroid belt 750-900 Reported for reference
SMC 11939 750[23] L/Teff
R Cygni 745[52][53] L/Teff
RU Virginis 740[54] L/Teff
LMC 137818 740[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
SMC 48122 740[23] L/Teff
V923 Centauri 736[20] AD
IRAS 04545-7000 730[17] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
IRAS 05003-6712 730[17] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
SMC 56732 730[23] L/Teff
WOH SG374 730[55] L/Teff
GU Cephei 730[20] AD
KK Persei 724[8] L/Teff
AD Persei 724[31] L/Teff
RSGC1-F07 718[8]-910[7] L/Teff Located in the massive open cluster RSGC1.
XX Persei 710[8] L/Teff Located in the Perseus Double Cluster and near the border with Andromeda.
V648 Cassiopeiae 710[3] L/Teff
Stephenson 2-04 710[8] L/Teff
Mercer 8-06 707[8] L/Teff
HV 1652 706[15] L/Teff
HD 179821 704[56] DSKE HD 179821 may be a yellow hypergiant or a much less luminous star.
SMC 55681 704[15] L/Teff
V407 Puppis 703[20] AD
J004255.95+404857.5 700-785[33] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
V528 Carinae 700[3] L/Teff
J003950.98+405422.5 700[57] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LMC 169754 700[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LMC 65558 700[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
SP77 30-6 (WOH S66) 700[55] L/Teff
V770 Cassiopeiae 700[20] AD
The following notable stars with sizes below 700 solar radii are kept here for comparison
Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) 697[20] AD Star with the third largest apparent size after R Doradus and the Sun. Another estimate gives 955±217 R[58] This estimate might not be reliable due to problems with measuring red supergiants in this way, but is consistent with other size estimates. Betelgeuse is a variable star so it changes size often.
V354 Cephei 685[59] L/Teff The star is an irregular variable, so estimates may be uncertain.
Antares (Alpha Scorpii A) 680[60] (varies by 19%)[61] AD Antares was originally calculated to be over 850 R,[62][63] but those estimates are likely to have been affected by asymmetry of the atmosphere of the star.
Rho Cassiopeiae 636-981[64] AD Yellow hypergiant, one of the rarest types of a star.
V509 Cassiopeiae (HR 8752) 590[20] AD Yellow hypergiant, one of the rarest types of a star.
CE Tauri 587-593[65] (-608[66]) AD Can be occulted by the Moon, allowing accurate determination of its apparent diameter.
DU Crucis 568[37] L/Teff A red supergiant, the only one in the Jewel Box Cluster.
CW Leonis 560[67] L/Teff Prototype of carbon stars. CW Leo was mistakenly identified as the claimed planet "Nibiru" or "Planet X".
AG Carinae 50–500[68] Luminous blue variable like Eta Carinae.
V382 Carinae 471[20] AD Yellow hypergiant, one of the rarest types of a star.
V838 Monocerotis 467[69] L/Teff A short time after the outburst V838 Mon was measured at 1,570 ± 400 R,[70] but its distance, and hence its size, have since been reduced and it proved to be a transient object that shrunk about four-fold over a few years. Like CW Leo, it has been erroneously portrayed as "Nibiru" or "Planet X" (see below).
The Pistol Star 420[71] AD Blue hypergiant, among the most massive and luminous stars known.
Sigma Canis Majoris 420[3]
Inner limits of the asteroid belt 380 Reported for reference
IRC +10420 357[72] L/Teff A yellow hypergiant that has increased its temperature into the LBV range. De beck et al. 2010 calculates 1,342 R based on a much cooler temperature.[25]
Mira A (Omicron Ceti) 332-402[73] AD Prototype Mira variable. De beck et al. 2010 calculates 541 R.[25]
R Doradus 298[74] AD Star with the second largest apparent size after the Sun.
Orbit of Mars 297-358 Reported for reference
La Superba (Y Canum Venaticorum) 289[20] AD Referred to as La Superba by Angelo Secchi. Currently one of the coolest and reddest stars.
Sun's red giant phase (asymptotic giant branch) 256[75] At this point, the Sun will engulf Mercury and Venus, and possibly the Earth although it will move away from its orbit since the Sun will lose a third of its mass. During the helium burning phase, it will shrink to 10 R but will later grow again and become an unstable AGB star, and then a white dwarf after making a planetary nebula.[76][77] Reported for reference
Eta Carinae A ~240[78] Previously thought to be the most massive single star, but in 2005 it was realized to be a binary system. During the Great Eruption, the size was much larger at around 1,400 R.[79] η Car lacks a good surface as the wind from it is so thick. It has a "core" with a radius of 60 R and the edge of the wind has a radius of 881 R.[80]
Orbit of Earth 215 (211-219) Reported for reference
Solar System Habitable Zone 200-520[81] (uncertain) Reported for reference
Orbit of Venus 154-157 Reported for reference
Epsilon Aurigae A (Almaaz) 143-358[82] AD ε Aur was incorrectly claimed in 1970 as the largest star with a size between 2,000 R and 3,000 R,[83] even though it later turned out not to be an "infrared light star" but rather a dusk torus surrounding the system.
Rho Persei (Gorgonea Tertia) 143[20] AD An example of an asymptotic giant branch star.
Deneb (Alpha Cygni) 99.84[20]–203[84] AD Prototype Alpha Cygni variable.
Peony Star 92[85] AD Candidate for most luminous star in the Milky Way.
Rigel 78.9 Brightest star in Orion.
Canopus (Alpha Carinae) 71 AD Second brightest star in the night sky.
Orbit of Mercury 66-100 Reported for reference
Albireo (Beta Cygni A) 62[86] Red giant in the Cygnus constellation that is part of a binary system.
LBV 1806-20 46-145 L/Teff Formerly a candidate for the most luminous star in the Milky Way with 40 million L,[87] but the luminosity has been revised later only 2 million L.[88][89]
Aldebaran (Alpha Tauri) 43.06[20] AD Close red giant star.
Polaris (Alpha Ursae Minoris) 37.5[90] AD The current northern pole star and a well-known Cepheid variable.
R136a1 28.8[91]-35.4[92] AD One of the most massive and luminous stars known (196 M and around 5 million L).
Arcturus (Alpha Boötis) 24.25[20] AD Brightest star in the northern hemisphere, and a K-type red giant.
HDE 226868 20-22[93] The supergiant companion of black hole Cygnus X-1. The black hole is around 500,000 times smaller than the star.
Dubhe (Alpha Ursae Majoris) 17.03[94] AD A red giant star in the prominent Ursa Major constellation.
VV Cephei B 13[95]–25[96] The blue main-sequence star companion of VV Cephei A.
Vega (Alpha Lyrae) 2.726±0.006 × 2.418±0.012[97] One of the brightest stars in the night sky.
Sun 1 The largest object in the Solar System.
Reported for reference
  1. Methods for calculating the radius:
    • AD: radius determined from angular diameter and distance
    • L/Teff: radius calculated from bolometric luminosity and effective temperature
    • DSKE: radius calculated using the disk emission
    • EB: radius determined from observations of the eclipsing binary

References Edit

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