macOS, formerly Mac OS X from 2001 to 2012 and OS X until 2016, is the name of an operating system for computers made by Apple Inc. These are called Macintosh computers, or Macs. It differs from other computers, as macOS is supposed to run only on Macs and not on other computers. However, people have made the OS run on computers that are not Macs. This is called Hackintosh and violates macOS’ license agreement.
|OS family||Macintosh, Unix|
|Source model||Closed source (with open source components)|
|Initial release||March 24, 2001|
|Latest release||10.14.5 (18F132) (May 13, 2019 ) [±]|
|Latest preview||10.15 beta 1 (19A471t) (June 3, 2019 ) [±]|
10.14.6 beta 1 (18G29g) (May 15, 2019 ) [±]
|Marketing target||Personal computing|
|Available in||38 languages|
|Template:Hidden top[as of macOS Mojave]: Arabic, Catalan, Croatian, Chinese (Hong Kong), Chinese (Simplified), Chinese (Traditional), Czech, Danish, Dutch, English (Australia), English (United Kingdom), English (United States), Finnish, French (Canada), French (Europe), German, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese (Brazil), Portuguese (Portugal), Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Spanish (Latin America), Spanish (Spain), Swedish, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, VietnameseTemplate:Hidden bottom|
|Kernel type||Hybrid (XNU)|
|Default user interface||Aqua (Graphical)|
|License||Commercial software, proprietary software|
|Preceded by||Classic Mac OS|
macOS first came out in 2001, and is completely different than the Classic Mac OS that it replaced. macOS is a UNIX OS that is based on NEXTSTEP, an older OS that Apple bought and turned into macOS. macOS and NEXTSTEP have a background in a kind of UNIX called BSD (more specifically FreeBSD and NetBSD). The core of macOS is an open source OS called Darwin, but Darwin itself cannot run macOS software.
macOS releases are named after kinds of big cats, or California landmarks, and have a version number that starts with 10. The latest versions of macOS are called macOS Mojave (10.14.x.) and macOS Catalina (10.15 beta 1).
|Version||Codename||Date Announced||Release Date||Most Recent Version|
|Rhapsody Developer Release||Grail1Z4 / Titan1U||Unknown||August 31, 1997||DR2 (May 14, 1998)|
|Mac OS X Server 1.0||Hera||March 16, 1999||1.2v3 (October 27, 2000)|
|Mac OS X Developer Preview||Kodiak||March 16, 1999||DP4 (April 5, 2000)|
|Public Beta||Kodiak/Cheetah||September 13, 2000|
|Mac OS X 10.0||Cheetah||January 5, 2000||March 24, 2001||10.0.4 (June 22, 2001)|
|Mac OS X 10.1||Puma||July 18, 2001||September 25, 2001||10.1.5 (June 6, 2002)|
|Mac OS X 10.2||Jaguar||May 6, 2002||August 24, 2002||10.2.8 (October 3, 2003)|
|Mac OS X 10.3||Panther||June 23, 2003||October 24, 2003||10.3.9 (April 15, 2005)|
|Mac OS X 10.4||Tiger||May 4, 2004||April 29, 2005||10.4.11 (November 14, 2007)|
|Mac OS X 10.5||Leopard||June 26, 2006||October 26, 2007||10.5.8 (August 5, 2009)|
|Mac OS X 10.6||Snow Leopard||June 9, 2008||August 28, 2009||10.6.8 v1.1 (July 25, 2011)|
|Mac OS X 10.7||Lion||October 20, 2010||July 20, 2011||10.7.5 (September 19, 2012)|
|OS X 10.8||Mountain Lion||February 16, 2012||July 25, 2012||10.8.5 (12F45) (October 3, 2013)|
|OS X 10.9||Mavericks||June 10, 2013||October 22, 2013||10.9.5 (13F1112) (September 18, 2014)|
|OS X 10.10||Yosemite||June 2, 2014||October 16, 2014||10.10.5 (14F27) (August 13, 2015)|
|OS X 10.11||El Capitan||June 8, 2015||September 30, 2015||10.11.6 (15G1510) (May 15, 2017)|
|macOS 10.12||Sierra||June 13, 2016||September 20, 2016||10.12.6 (16G1212) (July 19, 2017)|
|macOS 10.13||High Sierra||June 5, 2017||September 25, 2017||10.13.6 (17G65) (July 9, 2018)|
|macOS 10.14||Mojave||June 4, 2018||September 24, 2018||10.14.6 (18G87) (August 1, 2019)|
|macOS 10.15||Catalina||June 3, 2019||TBA||TBA|
|Operating System market share|
as of November, 2012
|Microsoft Windows - 82%|
|Mac OS X and Mac OS - 6%|
|iOS - 82%|
|Android - 3%|
|Java ME - 1%|
|Linux - 1%|
|Other - 0%|
Public Beta: "Kodiak"Edit
On September 13, 2000, Apple released a $29.95 preview of Mac OS X to ask users what they think of the new operating system so far. Apple stopped the Public Beta in March 2001 because of the recent release of OS X 10.0.
Version 10.0: "Cheetah"Edit
On March 24, 2001 Apple released Mac OS X for the first time aka OS X v10.0 (codename Cheetah), but rather than being an excellent and successful operating system version, it was a failure due to its many computer bugs and glitches and its slow performance. Luckily this operating system version only stayed on the market up until September when it was moved up to a "higher level".
Version 10.1: "Puma"Edit
Due to many problems and complaints about Cheetah, Apple directly got to work on releasing Puma, the next big cat in Mac OS X. It was released on September 24, 2001. Apple gave 10.0 users a free Mac OS X v10.1 install CD to make up for the flawed operating system before. As of January 7, 2002, Apple said Mac OS 9 and other previous operating systems from Apple were "going in the computer scrapyard" by the end of the month (January 31, 2002) and OS X would be the default and only operating system available on all Macs.
Version 10.2: "Jaguar"Edit
Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar was released on August 24, 2002 and was the first to have its codename in the version branding. The Happy Mac (which formerly appeared when a Mac was starting up) was replaced with a large gray apple logo with the startup sequence of OS X 10.2 Jaguar.
Version 10.3: "Panther"Edit
Mac OS X 10.3 Panther was released on October 24, 2003 and was one of the biggest updates to OS X yet. It featured a new brushed metal interface, an updated Finder, and many more features from Jaguar the year before.
Version 10.4: "Tiger"Edit
Tiger was released on April 29, 2005 and as stated by Apple, featured more than 200 new features. Among the new features, Tiger introduced Spotlight, Dashboard, Smart Folders, updated Mail program with Smart Mailboxes, QuickTime 7, Safari 2, Automator, VoiceOver, Core Image and Core Video. Apple released the first Power Intel Macs for Tiger on January 10, 2006. Tiger ran swell on these computers. It was also the last operating system to support the Aqua color scheme.
Version 10.5: "Leopard"Edit
Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard was released on October 26, 2007. It was completely redesigned featuring a 3D Dock, a new purple color scheme, and over 200 new features. It had both support for PowerPC and Intel Macs too. Leopard was the last release to have support for PowerPC.
Version 10.6: "Snow Leopard"Edit
Mac OS X Snow Leopard was released on August 28, 2009, and rather than featuring changes to the appearance, it featured "Under the hood" changes. Snow Leopard dropped support for PowerPC Macs too.
Version 10.7: "Lion"Edit
OS X Lion was first shown to the public at the "Back to The Mac" event in 2010, announced more at WWDC 2011, and released on July 20, 2011. It featured iOS like features such as a launchpad, the magic trackpad coming to MacBooks, and a new solar system color scheme. Apple also removed Rosetta making it impossible to use PowerPC.
Version 10.8: "Mountain Lion"Edit
OS X Mountain Lion was announced on February 18, 2012, and released on July 25, 2012. It adds more features from iOS 5 and 6 to the Mac such as notifications, messaging, game center, and gaming with people on iPhones, iPods, and iPads.
Version 10.9: "Mavericks"Edit
OS X Mavericks was announced on June 10, 2013 at the 2013 Worldwide Developers Conference. It adds the Maps and iBooks applications, as well as new Finder features, better multi-display support, power improvements, and a new version of Safari. It was released on October 22, 2013.
Version 10.10: "Yosemite"Edit
OS X Yosemite was announced in June 2014 at the 2014 Worldwide Developers Conference. It was in beta form for developers and those enrolled in the public beta programme to test till October 16 2014 when it was released.
Version 10.11: "El Capitan"Edit
OS X 10.11 El Capitan was released on September 30, 2015 after being announced on June 8, 2015. Similar to Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard, Apple described this release as containing "refinements to the Mac experience" and "improvements to system performance" rather than new features. Refinements include public transport built into the Maps application, GUI improvements to the Notes application, adopting San Francisco as the system font for clearer legibility, and the introduction of System Integrity Protection. The Metal API, first introduced in iOS 8, was also included in this operating system for "all Macs since 2012".
Version 10.12: "Sierra"Edit
macOS 10.12 Sierra was announced on June 12, 2016 and released to the public on September 20, 2016. New features include the addition of Siri, Optimized Storage, and updates to Photos, Messages, and iTunes
Version 10.13: "High Sierra"Edit
The fall release of macOS 10.13 High Sierra was announced on June 5, 2017 at Apple's WWDC event. On September 12, 2017 at Apple's iPhone event, they announced its release to be September 25, 2017. Like OS X El Capitan and OS X Mountain Lion, High Sierra is a refinement-based update having very few new features. High Sierra uses the new Apple File System and includes enhancements to Safari, Photos, and Mail, among other changes.
Version 10.14: "Mojave"Edit
Released on September 24th, 2018. There are many additional features to the existing mac-OS apps. Some highlights are Dark Mode (UI theme & appearance), time shifts reflecting the hour of the day (desktop background), file stacks, edit features in quick look, continuity camera and Group FaceTime features also adds the screenshot app.
Version 10.15: "Catalina"Edit
This upcoming OS is included with lots of additional new features like sharing your screen to iPad and is capable of running iPad apps. Catalina is the first version of macOS to exclusively support 64-bit applications.
- "What Is the I/O Kit?". IOKit Fundamentals.
Apple considered several programming languages for the I/O Kit and chose a restricted subset of C++.
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- Operating System Market Share, November 2012, courtesy of Net Applications, a marketing company which obtains its data from the Alexa Toolbar or related products. Because people who install these products on their computers are not always aware that the product reports web browsing habits back to the marketers at Alexa some security software considers the Alexa Toolbar spyware and removes it. Both the automated removal-as-spyware and the self-selecting nature of those who install software that reports on personal web browsing habits raises questions as to whether the resulting data represents a unbiased statistical sample of Internet users.
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