Military dictatorship in Brazil

1964-1985 military regime in Brazil

The military dictatorship in Brazil (Portuguese: ditadura militar) was created on 1 April 1964, after a coup d'état by the Brazilian Armed Forces, with support from the United States government against President João Goulart.

The Brazilian dictatorship lasted for 21 years, until 15 March 1985.[1][2] The military coup was led by José de Magalhães Pinto, Adhemar de Barros, and Carlos Lacerda, then governors of the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Guanabara.

The coup was planned and started by commanders of the Brazilian Army and had the support of almost all high-ranking members of the military, along with the Catholic Church and anti-communists. It was supported by the State Department of the United States through its embassy in Brasilia.[3][4]

The dictatorship censored all media, and tortured and exiled dissidents (person who challenges doctrines actively). João Figueiredo became president in March 1979; in the same year he passed the Amnesty Law for political crimes committed for and against the regime.

Brazil's military government was a model for other military governments in South America and Latin America.[5] In 2014, nearly 30 years after the regime fell, the Brazilian military recognized for the first time the torture and murder of political dissidents.[6] In May 2018, the United States government released a memorandum, written by Henry Kissinger, confirming that the leadership of the Brazilian military regime was fully aware of the killing of dissidents.[7] It is said that 434 people were either confirmed killed or went missing and 20,000 people were tortured[8] during the military dictatorship in Brazil.

President João Figueiredo eventually pushed the country back to democracy and supported the transfer of power to civilian rule. In 1981 the Congress enacted a law on restoration of direct elections of state governors. Tancredo Neves was elected by an electoral college to replace Figueiredo in 1984.

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  1. "Document No. 12. U.S. Support for the Brazilian Military Coup d'État, 1964" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-03-20. Retrieved 2022-10-24.
  2. Blakeley, Ruth (2009). State Terrorism and Neoliberalism: The North in the South. Routledge. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-415-68617-4.
  3. "Document No. 12. U.S. Support for the Brazilian Military Coup d'État, 1964" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-03-20. Retrieved 2022-10-24.
  4. Blakeley, Ruth (2009). State Terrorism and Neoliberalism: The North in the South. Routledge. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-415-68617-4.
  5. Gonzalez, Eduardo (6 December 2011). "Brazil Shatters Its Wall of Silence on the Past". International Center for Transitional Justice. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
  6. "Em documento, Forças Armadas admitem pela primeira vez tortura e mortes durante ditadura" (in Portuguese). O Globo. 19 September 2018. Archived from the original on 10 April 2022. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  7. "Documento da CIA relata que cúpula do Governo militar brasileiro autorizou execuções" (in Portuguese). El País. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  8. "Human Rights Watch: ditadura no Brasil torturou 20 mil pessoas; 434 foram mortas ou desapareceram - Política". Estadão (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-12-21.