Mosquito

family of nematoceran flies

A mosquito is a type of fly. It is the common name of a family of flies in the order Diptera.

Mosquito
Aedes aegypti: the vector of dengue fever
and yellow fever
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Suborder:
Family:
Culicidae
Subfamilies

Anophelinae
Culicinae

Diversity
43 genera
Larvae of a Culex mosquito

The females are ectoparasites: they land on warm-blooded animals, pierce a capillary, and inject saliva to stop the blood coagulating. Then they suck up and eat the blood. Deadly microscopic parasites often live in the saliva.[1][2] The mosquito's saliva is transferred to the host during the bite. It can cause an itchy rash. In addition, many species can transmit pathogens form one host to anoher, whien biting. In this way, mosquitoes are important vectors of parasitic diseases such as malaria and filariasis, and arboviral diseases such as yellow fever, Chikungunya, West Nile, dengue fever, and Zika. By transmitting diseases, mosquitoes cause the deaths of more people than any other animal taxon: over 700,000 each year.[3][4]

The males are nectar-feeders, and so are the females. However, in preparation for egg-laying the females turn to blood for its protein. [5]

Feeding & reproduction change

Usually both male and female mosquitoes feed on nectar and plant juices. In many species the mouthparts of the females are adapted for piercing the skin of animal hosts and sucking their blood as ectoparasites. In many species, the female needs to get proteins from a blood meal before she can produce eggs. Hence, only female mosquitoes bites human to suck their blood. In many other species, she can produce more eggs after a blood meal.[6]

They lay their eggs in pools of water. The larvae move around near the surface of the water, breathing through air tubes that stick out of the water. They get their food from the water, usually eating algae and other tiny creatures. They like to wiggle(move) around near the surface, which is why some people call them wigglers. The larvae usually enter the pupa stage within a few days or weeks of hatching, depending on the water temperature and the species.[7]

The pupae are called tumblers because they tumble in the water if the water is touched. Tumblers do not eat, but they move around in the water a lot, and like larvae, they breathe from tubes that stick out of the water. The pupa stage is short (only for a few days), and then the mosquito becomes an adult.

There are many species of mosquito. This comes about because, of those which suck blood, each species is adapted to a different host or group of hosts. There are two subfamilies, 43 genera and over 3,500 species of the Culicidae.[8]

Vectors for disease change

Mosquitoes are a vector (carrier) which carries disease-causing viruses and parasites from person to person.

The principal mosquito borne diseases are the viral diseases yellow fever, dengue fever and malaria carried by the genera Anopheles and Culex. Mosquitoes transmit disease to more than 700 million people every year in Africa, South America, Central America, Mexico and much of Asia with millions of resulting deaths.[9][10]

Mosquito control change

 
Dragonflies are natural predators of mosquitoes.

Methods used to prevent the spread of disease, or to protect individuals in areas where disease is endemic include:

  1. Vector control aimed at mosquito eradication. Habitat change: removing standing water and other breeding areas; pesticides; natural predators; and trapping.
  2. Disease prevention, using prophylactic drugs and vaccines; and preventing mosquito bites, with insecticides, nets and repellents.

Water change

Standing water, as in a pond or lake, is the main breeding ground. It may or may not be practical to eliminate this water. The water in bird baths can be changed once a week, but one can hardly do that with larger bodies of water. The method used to be: spray water with DDT, but that does a lot of damage, and in any event the mosquito is now highly resistant to the chemical.

Organic repellents change

With increasing reports of the harmful effects DEET has on humans, there has been a move to repellents which are organic. These are of the kind that have had traditional household purposes before their being used as mosquito repellents.[11]

Natural predators change

The dragonfly nymph eats mosquitoes at all stages of development and is quite effective in controlling populations.[12] Some bats can eat as many as 500 mosquitoes per hour. Some copepods are predators on first instar larvae, killing up to 40 Aedes larvae per day.[13] A number of fish eat mosquito larvae, including goldfish, catfish, piranhas, and minnows.

Evolution change

The oldest known mosquito with a basically modern anatomy was found in 79-million-year-old Canadian amber from the Upper Cretaceous.[14] An older sister species with more primitive features was found in amber that is 90 to 100 million years old.[15]

Genetic analyses indicate that the Culicinae and Anophelinae clades may have diverged about 150 million years ago.[16] The Old and New World Anopheles species are believed to have subsequently diverged about 95 million years ago.[16]

References change

  1. Harrison, Gordon A. 1978. Mosquitoes, malaria, and man: a history of the hostilities since 1880 ISBN 0525160256 / 0-525-16025-6
  2. Day, Nancy 2001. Malaria, West Nile, and other mosquito-borne diseases Enslow. ISBN 9780766015975
  3. "Mosquitoes of Michigan -Their Biology and Control". Michigan Mosquito Control Organization. 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-03-30.
  4. Bates C (2016-01-28). "Would it be wrong to eradicate mosquitoes? – BBC News". Archived from the original on 2016-02-01. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  5. "Why do only female mosquitoes bite?". Mètode. 23 July 2015.
  6. CDC (28 June 2023). "What is a Mosquito?". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 25 October 2023.
  7. Silver, John B. 2008. Mosquito ecology. 3rd ed, Springer, Berlin. ISBN 978-1-4020-6665-8
  8. Harbach R.E. 2011. Mosquito Taxonomic Inventory
  9. "Mosquito-Borne Diseases" – The American Mosquito Control Association. Retrieved 2008-10-14.
  10. Molavi, Afshin (2003-06-12). "Africa's malaria death toll still "outrageously high"". National Geographic. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
  11. DEET Health Effects in Humans -- DEET Chemical Technical Summary for Public Health and Public Safety Professionals, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, December 6, 2004: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/consultations/deet/health-effects.html
  12. Singh RK, Dhiman RC, Singh SP (June 2003). "Laboratory studies on the predatory potential of dragon-fly nymphs on mosquito larvae". J Commun Dis. 35 (2): 96–101. PMID 15562955.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. Marten GG, Reid JW (2007). "Cyclopoid copepods". J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 23 (2 Suppl): 65–92. doi:10.2987/8756-971X(2007)23[65:CC]2.0.CO;2. PMID 17853599. S2CID 7645668.
  14. Poinar G.O. et al. 2000. Paleoculicis minutus (Diptera: Culicidae) n. gen., n. sp., from Cretaceous Canadian amber with a summary of described fossil mosquitoes. Acta Geologica Hispanica 35: 119–128. PDF 177 kb Archived 2013-10-29 at the Wayback Machine
  15. Borkent A. & Grimaldi D.A. 2004. The earliest fossil mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae), in Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. Ann Ent Soc Am 97: 882–888. [1] Archived 2011-11-26 at the Wayback Machine
  16. 16.0 16.1 Calvo E, Pham VM, Marinotti O, Andersen JF, Ribeiro JM (2009). "The salivary gland transcriptome of the neotropical malaria vector Anopheles darlingi is thought to reveal accelerated evolution of genes relevant to hematophagy" (PDF). BMC Genomics. 10 (1): 57. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-57. PMC 2644710. PMID 19178717. Retrieved 2009-06-21.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)