Zika virus

species of virus

Zika virus (ZIKV) belongs to the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus. It is spread by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes, which are active during the daytime.

Zika virus
Electron micrograph of "Zika virus". Virus particles (colored purple) are 40 nm in diameter, with an outer envelope and a dense inner core.
Electron micrograph of Zika virus. Virus particles (digitally colored purple) are 40 nm in diameter, with an outer envelope and a dense inner core.[1]
"Zika virus" capsid model, colored by chains, PDB entry 5ire
Zika virus capsid model, colored by chains, PDB entry 5ire[2]
Virus classification Edit this classification
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
(unranked): incertae sedis
Family: Flaviviridae
Genus: Flavivirus
Zika virus

Zika virus is named after Uganda's Zika Forest, where the virus was discovered in 1947.[3]

Zika virus can cause an infectious disease called Zika fever. Zika fever often causes no symptoms, or only mild symptoms. Scientists know that people in Africa and Asia have been getting Zika fever since the 1950s. In 2014, the virus spread eastward across the Pacific Ocean - first to French Polynesia, then to Easter Island. Finally, in 2015, it spread to Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America. In these places, Zika virus has become a pandemic.[4]

Background change

Zika virus is related to West Nile virus and the viruses that cause dengue fever, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis.[5] Zika virus causes an illness that is like a mild form of dengue fever.[5] It is treated by rest.[6] As of 2016, there is no medication or vaccine that can prevent the Zika virus.[6]

Pregnant women who get the Zika virus can spread the virus to their fetuses. When they are born, these newborns may be more likely to have microcephaly.[7][8][9] In places where the Zika virus lives, people are more likely to have birth defects, neurological problems like Guillain-Barré syndrome, and autoimmune diseases.[10]

2016 outbreak change

In January 2016, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published advice for how to avoid getting Zika fever. They suggested that when traveling to places where Zika virus lives:[11][12]

  • Travelers should use "enhanced precautions," meaning they should be as careful as possible to avoid getting bitten by mosquitoes
  • Pregnant women should think about not traveling to these areas

Other governments or health agencies soon issued similar travel warnings.[13][14] Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Jamaica advised women not to get pregnant until scientists know more about the risks of Zika virus to pregnant women.[15]

On February 2, 2016, public health officials in Dallas County, Texas, reported the first case of somebody getting Zika virus in the United States.[16][17]

References change

  1. Goldsmith C (18 March 2005). "TEM image of the Zika virus". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  2. Sirohi D, Chen Z, Sun L, Klose T, Pierson TC, Rossmann MG, Kuhn RJ (April 2016). "The 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of Zika virus". Science. 352 (6284): 467–470. Bibcode:2016Sci...352..467S. doi:10.1126/science.aaf5316. PMC 4845755. PMID 27033547.
  3. "ATCC Product Sheet Zika virus (ATCC® VR 84TM) Original Source: Blood from experimental forest sentinel rhesus monkey, Uganda, 1947". Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  4. McKenna, Maryn (13 January 2016). "Zika Virus: A New Threat and a New Kind of Pandemic". Germination. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Zika virus infection". ecdc.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment". Zika Virus. DVBD, NCEZID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 5 November 2014.
  7. Leonardo Aguiar. "Ministério da Saúde confirma relação entre vírus Zika e microcefalia". Portal da Saúde – Ministério da Saúde – www.saude.gov.br.
  8. Oliveira Melo, A. S.; Malinger, G.; Ximenes, R.; Szejnfeld, P. O.; Alves Sampaio, S.; Bispo de Filippis, A. M. (1 January 2016). "Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg?". Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 47 (1): 6–7. doi:10.1002/uog.15831. ISSN 1469-0705. PMID 26731034. S2CID 310311.
  9. "Epidemiological update: Outbreaks of Zika virus and complications potentially linked to the Zika virus infection". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  10. "17 January 2016: Neurological syndrome, congenital malformations, and Zika virus infection – Epidemiological Update". Pan American Health Organization. 17 January 2016. Archived from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  11. "Zika Virus in the Caribbean". Travelers' Health: Travel Notices. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 15 January 2016.
  12. Petersen, Emily E.; Staples, J. Erin; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Fischer, Marc; Ellington, Sascha R.; Callaghan, William M.; Jamieson, Denise J. (2016). "Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak – United States, 2016". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 65 (2): 30–33. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6502e1. PMID 26796813.
  13. "Zika virus: Advice for those planning to travel to outbreak areas". ITV News. 22 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  14. "Pregnant Irish women warned over Zika virus in central and South America". RTE. 22 January 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  15. "Zika virus triggers pregnancy delay calls". BBC. 23 January 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  16. "Zika Virus Confirmed in Dallas County, Spread Through Sexual Contact: Dallas County Health". NBC 5 Dallas-Fort Worth.
  17. "DCHHS Reports First Zika Virus Case in Dallas County Acquired Through Sexual Transmission" (PDF). Dallas County Health and Human Services. February 2, 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-03. Retrieved 2016-02-04.

Other websites change