The Neo-Babylonian Empire or Second Babylonian Empire (also known as Chaldea) refers Babylonia during the 11th, or Chaldean, dynasty. The old empire was torn apart by civil wars in the middle 7th Century BC. "Chaldea" meant the southern part of Babylonia, until a Chaldean became the king of Babylon.
This new dynasty ruled between 626 BC when Nabopolassar rebelled against Assyria, till 539 BC when Cyrus the Great captured the city of Babylon. The king Nebuchadnezzar II ruled this kingdom from 605 BC - 562 BC.