Nongshaba or Nongsaba[a] (Meitei: ꯅꯣꯡꯁꯥꯕ) is a Lion God in Meitei religion (Sanamahism) and mythology. He is also the king of the gods. He made light for the world. He made the sun. He is worshipped by the people of both the Ningthouja clans as well as the Moirang clans. God Nongshaba is worshipped in Moirang as the father of God Thangching (Thangjing). He is the most powerful and important of the Umang Lais (Meitei for forest gods) in Ancient Kangleipak (early Manipur). He made his only son Thangching (Thangjing) the king of Moirang.
(Old Manipuri: Nongshapa)
|Member of Umang Lai Meitei deities|
|Other names||Nongsaba (Old Manipuri: Nongsapa) |
Tholbu Chinglen Nongdai Ningthou (Old Manipuri: Tholpu Chinglen Nongtai Ningthou)
|Affiliation||Meitei mythology (Manipuri mythology) |
Meitei folklore (Manipuri folklore)
Meitei religion (Sanamahism)
|Major cult center||Umang Lai cults|
|Abode||Sky and Earth|
|Region||Ancient Kangleipak (early Manipur)|
|Ethnic group||Meitei people|
|Offspring||Thangching (Thangjing) (born from Sarungleima)|
|Parents||Salailen Sidaba (father)|
The culture of God Nongsaba (Nongshaba) was brought from Moirang, to Meitei King Khagemba (Meitei: ꯈꯥꯒꯦꯝꯕ). Two people, Mungyaang Ngairaangba and Yumnaam Tonba, brought the worship of Nongshaba to Moirang.
During the reign of King Khagemba (Meitei: ꯈꯥꯒꯦꯝꯕ) (r. 1597-1652 AD), worshippers began to think of Nongsaba as the King of the gods. God Nongsaba was recognised as an Umang Lai. The people built a temple.
With this, other Umang Lai gods and goddesses became lower ranking gods and goddesses. During this time, a Meitei family named "Leithangbam" managed the temple of Nongsaba. "Phura" was a group of maibis Meitei for priestesses. They worship God Nongsaba.
During the time of Meitei king Paikhomba (Meitei: ꯄꯥꯏꯈꯣꯝꯕ), there was a religious marriage ceremony of princess Yaosombi (Meitei: ꯌꯥꯎꯁꯣꯝꯕꯤ) and God Nongsaba. In the event, an elephant was offered to the god. From the time of King Khagemba until the time of King Charairongba, God Nongsaba was more popular than God Sanamahi.
During the time of King Garibniwaz (Meitei: Pamheiba), on the 12th of November 1723, Brahmins (priests of Hinduism) started controlling the temples of Nongsaba (Nongshaba) and Yimthei Lai, Panthoibi and Taibangkhaiba (Sanamahi).
After 1726 AD, the culture of worshipping God Nongsaba did not survive for a long time. His worshipping culture was replaced by the different gods and goddesses of Hinduism. On 17 October 1732, King Garibniwaz (Meitei: Pamheiba) and his teacher Shantidas Gosai closed the temples of Nongshaba as well as Sanamahi, Yumtheilai, Panthoibi, and other Umang Lais.
According to the "Nongshaba Laihui" ("Nongsaba Laihui") book, God Nongsaba (Nongshaba) is the second son of the Universal God. He is also known as "Tholbu Chinglen Nongdai Ningthou". According to the book, God Nongsaba doesn't have much duty or any big role in the creation of the universe. Unlike his younger brother Pakhangba, Nongsaba did not disturb his elder brother Asheeba (alias Sanamahi). He stayed away from disturbing Asheeba.
Unlike his younger brother Pakhangba, Nongsaba does not have any human children. Unlike his elder brother Sanamahi, Nongsaba does not have any human forms. These are mentioned in the Meitei language books, the Pakhangba Laihui and the Sanamahi Laihui.
The Nongsaba Laihui (Nongshaba Laihui) describes the greatness of God Nongsaba (Nongshaba) as follows:
“Thou, Lord of Gods and Goddesses together with the exalted Awang Phatlou Laimakhomba (Sanamahi), like two strands of the thread entwined, exercise Thine sway over the earth and in doing so effulgent rays radiate from Thee. Thus with the reflected light, all other divine beings take on a dazzling look and are then made to stand guard at the four corners, eight directions and sixteen sub-directions. All the souls of the living creatures emanate from Thee and again like beads of gold strung together Thou art in complete harmony with Nongda Lairen Pakhangba who can be a man in the night and a God during the day. There Thou takest Thine name as Chinglen Nongdai Ningthou and with Thine consort Thongnang Leicha Khombi, Thou becomest like innumerable Suns among the myriad stars… On both of Thee attend the God of the death and the God of the westerly directions, who hold ornamental receptacles for delicacies. And the enchanting seven goddesses gently play the fans made of peacock feathers for Thy pleasure. O Powerful One! Thou holdest intake the seven folds of the sky above and the earth down below with dowels of iron…”
The "Nongsaba Laihui" book also says about God Nongsaba (Nongshaba) as follows:
“God Koubru served Nongsaba as his shawl, god Thangjing Koiren Ningthou as his back cushion, god Wangpuren, son of Wangnu Reima Khomchomphabi, as his carpet, God Marching, as his throne, god Nongpok Ningthou as his looking mirror, Telli Ningthou Sidaba as his clothes hanger, the sun god as his sekpin (canopy) and Pakhangba as arangchi, goddess”
According to Dr. Saroj Nalini Arambam Parratt, the second lines of the Meitei poem "Anoirol" mentions many sky deities. In the song, Nongshaba is said to be the god of the sky of Moirang. This song is sung in the Lai Haraoba, .
People who worship Nongshaba give him white clothes, fruit, flowers, white fish (preferably "Sareng" (Wallago attu)) and other clothes. These are the same types of gifts that people offer to Pakhangba and Yumjao Lairembi (Yumjao Leima).
|Maibis||Latin transliterations (Romanisation)||Hierarchy||Salai||Latin transliterations (Romanisation)||Deities to be worshipped||Latin transliterations (Romanisation)|
|ꯅꯣꯡꯃꯥꯢ (ꯅꯣꯡꯃꯥꯏ)||Nongmai||Middle position||ꯂꯨꯋꯥꯡ||Luwang||ꯌꯨꯝꯖꯥꯎ ꯂꯩꯃ||Yumjao Leima (Yumjao Lairembi)|
|ꯐꯨꯔꯥ (ꯐꯨꯂꯥ)||Phura (Phula)||Lowest position||ꯈꯨꯃꯟ||Khuman||ꯅꯣꯡꯁꯥꯕ||Nongshaba|
In Meitei clothes Edit
In Meitei cultural clothes, the design of the "Ningkham" and the "Samjin" shows God Nongshaba. The "Samjin" shows the head of God Nongshaba. The "Ningkham" shows the tail of God Nongshaba.
- Head of Nongshaba
- Ears of Nongshaba
The two ears of God Nongshaba are shown by the fan like clothes on the two sides of the head cloth.
- Beard of Nongshaba
The beard of God Nongshaba is shown by the long and narrow line of a decorative cloth. That cloth is hung loosely on the chest.
- Main body of Nongshaba
- Tail of Nongshaba
In Bangladesh Edit
Meitei kings built many temples for Meitei gods and goddesses in Bangladesh. Among many, there is also a temple of God Nongshaba. In the Manipuri Rajbari in Lama Bazar of Bangladesh, the temple of God Nongshaba was built along with the temples of God Pakhangba and Goddess Yumjao Lairembi. Its architecture is similar to that of Goddess Yumjao Lairembi. The Temple's front door faces South. It is square in shape. It covers an area of 2.40 sq. meters.
On the 15th of December 2015 in Imphal, "Nongsaba" (magazine) was published under the aim "Journalism for change". It is about the social, political, economic, educational, cultural, scientific topics.
- In Meitei language, there is no difference between "sa" and "sha".
- Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (1901). Man. London. p. 85.
- Man. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 1913. pp. 10, 81, 85.
Nongshāba . — The head Maiba of Moirang informed me that when the universe was in the making and all was dark this powerful "Lai" produced light . Nongshāba may mean maker of the sun . 2 Lai - sang.- This is a prosaic looking building ...
- Internationales Asienforum: International Quarterly for Asian Studies (in English and German). Weltform Verlag. 1989. p. 300.
Lainingthou Nongsaba ( Lion , King of the Gods )
- Singh, Moirangthem Kirti (1993). Folk Culture of Manipur. ISBN 9788170490630.
- General, India Office of the Registrar (1962). Census of India, 1961. Manager of Publications. p. 53.
Nongshaba and his wife Sarunglaima come in person, two by no means beautiful figures. The reason of this is that they are the parents of the Thangjing. Nongshaba is the greatest of the umang - lai or forest gods.
- Parratt, Saroj Nalini (1980). The Religion of Manipur: Beliefs, Rituals, and Historical Development. Firma KLM. pp. 15, 118, 125. ISBN 978-0-8364-0594-1.
There are two references also to Nongshāba, who, as we have seen, was the father of the Moirāng god Thāngjing.
- Singh, Ch Manihar (1996). A History of Manipuri Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 83, 84. ISBN 978-81-260-0086-9.
Nongsābā Lāihui is a magnificat to Nongsābā who is taken to be the second son of the Universal Lord . He is also known as Tholbu Chinglen Nongdāi Ningthou and is not much referred to as having assigned or taken a great role in the creation of the universe or stood in the way of his elder brother Asheebā while executing the gigantic task.
- Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (1901). Man. London. p. 81.
- Man. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 1913. pp. 10, 81, 85.
Nongshāba . — The head Maiba of Moirang informed me that when the universe was in the making and all was dark this powerful " Lai " produced light . Nongshāba may mean maker of the sun . 2 Lai - sang.- This is a prosaic looking building ...
- Singh, N. Joykumar (2006). Ethnic Relations Among the People of North-East India. Centre for Manipur Studies, Manipur University and Akansha Publishing House. pp. 47, 48. ISBN 978-81-8370-081-8.
Not only this, the deity of Lord Nongshaba was also worshipped by both communities. To the Moirangs, Nongshaba was worshipped as lineage deity and regarded as the father of Lord Thangjing.
- Anthropos (in English, French, German, and Italian). Zaunrith'sche Buch-, Kunst- und Steindruckerei. 1913. p. 888.
Ses parents sont Nongshaba et son épouse Sarumglaima . Le premier est le plus grand des Umanglai ou dieux de la forêt ; il produisit un fils unique , Thangjing , le dieu suprême de Moirang . La manifestation de Thangjing constitue le ...
- Leach, Marjorie (1992). Guide to the gods. Gale Research. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-873477-85-4.
- Neelabi, sairem (2006). Laiyingthou Lairemmasinggee Waree Seengbul [A collection of Stories of Meetei Gods and Goddesses] (in Manipuri). Longjam Arun For G.M.Publication, Imphal. pp. 156, 157, 158, 159, 160.
- Leach, Marjorie (1992). Guide to the gods. Gale Research. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-873477-85-4.
- Leach, Marjorie (1992). Guide to the gods. Gale Research. p. 362. ISBN 978-1-873477-85-4.
- Parratt, Saroj Nalini (1980). Religion Of Manipur. Firma Klm. p. 15.
- Bahadur, Mutua (1986). Epigraphical Records of Manipur (in English and Manipuri). Mutua Museum. p. 29.
Asapa - Nongsaa mei ( Nongsa God Nongsaba : mai – end point : 1.e. next to the God Nongsaba ) . 1 ) God Nongsaba was brought from Moirang by the two persons , Mungyaang Ngai . raangba and Yumnaam Tonba . They presented the said God to ...
- Hareshwar Goshwami (2004). Hareshwar Goshwami History Of The PEOPLE OF MANIPUR (Revised ed.). Yaol Publishing Limited, 22-22 Wenlocl Road, London. p. 214.
- Birajit, Soibam (2014-12-01). Meeyamgi Kholao: Sprout of Consciousness. ARECOM (Advanced Research Consortium, Manipur). p. 110.
The god who was elevated to the position of supreme god during the reign of Khagemba was not Sanamahi but Nongsaba. During the reign of Khagemba (r. 1597-1652 CE) Nongsaba was recognized as an Umanglai by dedicating a five storied temple to him.
- Parratt, Saroj Nalini (1980). Religion Of Manipur. Firma Klm. p. 125.
- Birajit, Soibam (2014-12-01). Meeyamgi Kholao: Sprout of Consciousness. ARECOM ( Advanced Research Consortium, Manipur). p. 111.
- Singh, Moirangthem Kirti (1988). Religion and Culture of Manipur. Manas Publications. pp. 38, 39. ISBN 978-81-7049-021-0.
phura ( priestess of Nongsaba deity ) . They are believed to have the vision of these deities whom they serve and are able to communicate the message of gods during their trances to the people .
- Parratt, Saroj Nalini (1980). Religion Of Manipur. Firma Klm. pp. 127, 128.
- Parratt, Saroj Nalini (1980). Religion Of Manipur. Firma Klm. p. 141.
- Parratt, Saroj Nalini (1980). Religion Of Manipur. Firma Klm. p. 19.
- "Hinduism in Manipur Part 2 By Chirom Rajketan". e-pao.net. Retrieved 2022-10-06.
In the month of Langban, 1723 A.D he destroyed the shrines of Umang Lai. On the full moon day of Hiyangei Friday, Brahmins were allowed to enter the Meitei temples of Lainingthou Nongsaba, Yumthei Lai,Panthoibi and Taibangkhaiba to perform the various religious rites.
- Parratt, Saroj Nalini (1980). The Religion of Manipur: Beliefs, Rituals, and Historical Development. Firma KLM. pp. 51, 157. ISBN 978-0-8364-0594-1.
The two greatest of the lāi involved in this attempt , Lainingthou Nongsaba and the goddess Pānthoibi , did not survive long in their new Hinduized form , for they were destroyed along with other gods in the purge of 1726 A. D.
- Parratt, Saroj Nalini (1980). Religion Of Manipur. Firma Klm. p. 157.
- Noni, Arambam; Sanatomba, Kangujam (2015-10-16). Colonialism and Resistance: Society and State in Manipur. Routledge. p. 235. ISBN 978-1-317-27066-9.
The revivalists charged Garibniwaz and his Guru Shantidas Gosai for their unforgivable acts of burning more than 120 Puyas on 17 October 1732, destroying temples of Sanamahi, Nongshaba, Yumtheilai, Panthoibi, and UmangLais, ...
- Singh, Moirangthem Kirti (1998). Recent Researches in Oriental Indological Studies: Including Meiteilogy. Parimal Publications. p. 53.
Manipuri Scholars who believe that Kanglasha is a representation of Leiningthou Nongsaba one of the sons of Supreme Deity.
- Anvīkshā (in English, Bengali, and Sanskrit). Jadavpur University. 2004. p. 237.
According to Manipuri belief Kangla Sha is a representation of Lainingthou Nongshaba, the eldest son of Guru the Almighty, immortal / excellent.
- Paniker, K. Ayyappa (1997). Medieval Indian Literature: Surveys and selections (Assamese-Dogri). Sahitya Akademi. p. 337. ISBN 978-81-260-0365-5.
Nongshaba Laihui and Panthoibi Khungun are important books of this time.
- Siṃha, Konsama Mānikacānda (2015). Noṃśābā lāihui. Konasama Imo Simha.
- Chandrashekhar Singh, Khulem (1982). Umang Lai Khunda Ahaba Chahi (in Manipuri). All Manipur Umang Lai Haraoba Committee & Digital Library of India. pp. 3–21.
- Singh, Ch Manihar (1996). A History of Manipuri Literature. Sahitya Akademi. p. 84. ISBN 978-81-260-0086-9.
Nongsābā like His younger brother Pākhangbā has no human descendants nor does He manifest in human form like His elder brother Sanāmahi as given in the MSS Pākhangbā Lāihui and Sanāmahi Lāihui .
- Singh, Elangbam Nilakanta (1982). Aspects of Indian Culture.
- Parratt, Saroj Nalini (1997). The Pleasing of the Gods: Meitei Lai Haraoba. Vikas Publishing House. pp. 105, 112, 178. ISBN 978-81-259-0416-8.
Furthermore in the second stanza of Anoirol, which must belong to earliest strata of the Meitei version of the Lai Haraoba, a number of sky gods are mentioned, including Soraren and Nongshaba (the Moirang sky deity).
- Meitei, Mayanglambam Mangangsana (2021-06-06). The Sound of Pena in Manipur. Marjing Mayanglambam. p. 19. ISBN 978-93-5473-655-1.
With the approval of the Loisang the entrant would offer three white fish, preferably Sareng ( Wallago Attu ) and three loin cloths to the deities Nongsaba, Yumjao Lairembi and Pakhangba.
- Meitei, Mayanglambam Mangangsana (2021-06-06). The Sound of Pena in Manipur. Marjing Mayanglambam. p. 52. ISBN 978-93-5473-655-1.
On a auspicious day a new recruit would offer white clothes, fruits, flowers and white fish to the deities Nongshaba, Pakhangba and Yumjao Lairembi.
- Parratt, Saroj Nalini (1980). Religion Of Manipur. Firma Klm. pp. 51, 52.
- Muthukumaraswamy, M. D.; Kaushal, Molly (2004). Folklore, Public Sphere, and Civil Society. NFSC www.indianfolklore.org. p. 71. ISBN 978-81-901481-4-6.
Later they entered the Naoshumshang, the shrine of ancestral figures—Pakhangba and Nongshaba, and later the Yumjao Lairembi (Mother Goddess of the Big House), where they prayed for the longevity of the king.
- Parratt, Saroj Nalini (1980). Religion Of Manipur. Firma Klm. pp. 117, 118.
- Brara, N. Vijaylakshmi (1998). Politics, society, and cosmology in India's North East. Delhi ; New York : Oxford University Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-19-564331-2.
- Dr. K. Sobita Devi (1998). Traditional Dress of the Meiteis (in English and Manipuri). Imphal: Bhubon Publishing House. p. 94.
- Dr. K. Sobita Devi (1998). Traditional Dress of the Meiteis (in English and Manipuri). Imphal: Bhubon Publishing House. p. 96.
- Kangleinganpa Kha Nganpa, S. (2011). History Of Meetei People-holy Book Ed. 2nd (in Manipuri). Digital Library of India. p. 263.
- Kangleinganpa Kha Nganpa, S. (2011). History Of Meetei People-holy Book Ed. 2nd (in Manipuri). Digital Library of India. p. 264.
- Sana, Raj Kumar Somorjit (2010). The Chronology of Meetei Monarchs: From 1666 CE to 1850 CE. Waikhom Ananda Meetei. pp. 300, 301. ISBN 978-81-8465-210-9.
- Sanajaoba, Naorem (1988). Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization. Mittal Publications. p. 172. ISBN 978-81-7099-853-2.
- Sanajaoba, Naorem (1988). Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization. Mittal Publications. p. 175. ISBN 978-81-7099-853-2.
- "manipur channel >>Arts and Culture ~ E-Pao! News About Manipur". e-pao.net. Retrieved 2022-10-06.
- "Fortnightly magazine: 05th dec15 ~ E-Pao! Headlines". e-pao.net. Retrieved 2022-10-06.