Padma Vibhushan is the second highest civilian award of India after the highest civilian award Bharat Ratna. This award was followed by Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri. This award was started to be awarded to the citizens of India since 1954. This award was awarded to the recipients on the Republic Day of India.
The first recipients to be awarded with Padma Vibhushan are Satyendra Nath Bose, Nand Lal Bose, Zakir Hussain, Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher, Jigme Dorji Wangchuk and V.K.Krishna Menon. Vikram Sarabhai became the first person to be awarded Padma Vibhushan posthumously in 1972.
- "Padma Awards: Year wise list of recipients (1954–2014)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 21 May 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Padma Awards: 2015" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 25 January 2015. p. 1. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Padma Awards: 2016" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 25 January 2016. p. 1. Retrieved 25 January 2016.