Palmyra was an ancient Arabian city in central Syria. It is in an oasis 215 kilometres (134 miles) northeast of Damascus, and 180 km (110 mi) southwest of the Euphrates. It was an important city in ancient times. It had long been a place for travellers to stop when crossing the Syrian Desert. The city was founded some time during the 2nd millennium BC. It became abandoned around 1929. The site was made a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980.
The ruins of Palmyra in 2010
|Location||Tadmur, Homs Governorate, Syria|
|Part of||Palmyrene Empire|
|Area||80 ha (200 acres)|
|Founded||3rd millennium BC|
|Periods||Middle Bronze Age to Modern|
|Cultures||Aramaic, Arabic, Greco-Roman|
|Management||Syrian Ministry of Culture|
|Public access||Inaccessible (in a war zone)|
|Official name||Site of Palmyra|
|Criteria||i, ii, iv|
The Semitic name of the city is Tadmur (Arabic: تدمر). In Aramaic, it means "a city that cannot be defeated". The earliest written reference to the city by this name is on Babylonian tablets found in Mari. It is still known as Tadmur in Arabic.
The people of Palmyra worshipped many gods and goddesses from Mesopotamia, Syria, Arabia and Greece. They built a series of temples and large monuments containing funerary art, or art representing the dead. Palmyrans originally spoke Aramaic, but later began speaking Greek. The area was later made a part of the Roman Empire. Between the years 260 and 273, Odaenathus and his wife Zenobia used Palmyra as the capital of the Palmyrene Empire. This period of history is called the Crisis of the Third Century.
- Baghdadi 2015.
- Hillers & Cussini, Delbert & Eleonora (2005). A journey to Palmyra: collected essays to remember Delbert R. Hillers. Brill. pp. 195–196. ISBN 978-90-04-12418-9.
- Palmyra (Syria) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- "Tadmor: Syria". Geographical Names. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- "Tedmor: Syria (ancient site)". Geographical Names. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- Teixidor, Javier (1979). The pantheon of Palmyra. Brill Archive. p. 34, 59, 62. ISBN 978-90-04-05987-0.
- Shahîd, Irfan. Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century, Volume 2, Part 2. p. 256.
- "Tedmor: Syria (populated place)". Geographical Names. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Palmyra.|
- Burns, Ross (1999). Monuments of Syria. London and New York: I.B. Tauris. pp. 162–175.
- Isaac, Benjamin (2000). The Limits of Empire - the Roman Army in the East (revised ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.