Podolia, also known as Podilia, is a region in Ukraine that's located south of Volhynia, north of both Moldova and Bukovina, and northwest of the Dniester River. It was a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (where it had the highest population density) until the late 18th century, when it was split between Austria and Russia due to the partitions of Poland. Even afterwards, the Polish nobility continued to dominate Podolia while the peasants there were mostly Ukrainians. By the end of the 19th century, Ukrainian nationalism began spreading to Podolia. The towns of western Podolia failed to become large cities because they were overshadowed by Lviv. During the Russian Civil War, Poland, Ukraine, the White Russians, and the Bolsheviks all competed for Podolia. In the end, Podolia got divided between Poland, who got western Podolia, and the Soviet Union, who got eastern Podolia. This situation existed until World War II, when the Soviet Union conquered all of Podolia. Due to World War II, the Holocaust, and later emigration, the Jewish and Polish populations of Podolia significantly decreased. After the end of World War II, the Russian population in Podolia increased significantly. Even today, Podolia is one of the most agricultural and least industrialized parts of Ukraine.
- "Podilia". www.encyclopediaofukraine.com.